Diogenes the Cynic: Understanding the Roots of Cynicism | #Philosophy

Today, cynicism is synonymous to pessimism, lack of enthusiasm, skepticism, and selfishness. But Cynicism -literally translating to “living like a dog” (from the Greek «κύων»= dog)- is also a school of thought. An ancient Greek school of though to be precise. And the ideas of these philosophers have few in common to our current perception of cynicism.

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What is the Philosophy of Cynicism About?

Cynicism is a philosophical movement that appeared in Greece around the 5th Century BC. It was founded by Antisthenes, one of Socrates’ pupils, in Cynosarges – a temple of Heracles and public gymnasium on the outskirts of Athens.

Cynics wanted to live in virtue. They rejected superficial values, such as wealth, power, and fame. They wanted a simple life in accordance to nature. Although this school of thought declined on the 3rd Century BC, Cynicism reappeared in the Roman Empire in the 1st Century.

This time, Cynics would follow an ascetic life. They would often beg on the streets, dismissing all their possessions, and preach in public spaces. It comes as no surprise that their teachings inspired many early Christians.

Today, Cynicism is often perceived as a personality trait, rather than a philosophical movement. If you call someone “cynical”, you don’t necessarily mean that this person disregards power and material possessions, but rather the opposite. A cynical person today is someone who is skeptical towards the morals of his or her time. Someone who sees people as motivated mostly by money and success, rather than morality.  

Who was Diogenes the Cynic? | Facts about Diogenes

Although Antisthenes was the founder of Cynicism, it was Diogenes of Sinope who is the archetypal Cynic. You might have seen him depicted sleeping in a barrel, surrounded by dogs. Indeed, Diogenes often slept in a pithos – an ancient Greek clay barrel – because he was against owing a house and wanted to live as “naturally” as possible.

The beggar philosopher of Athens grew up in Sinope, near the Black Sea. His father was a banker who minted coins for a living but, as it usually happens, he became the opposite of his father figure: someone who rejects coins. For reasons that are not clear, he was exiled from the city of Sinope and lost everything he owned. This event changed him. In order to cope with the loss of his citizenship and fortune, Diogenes chose to underestimate their importance. There must be something else, more important than money and security, right?

In a search of virtue, Diogenes ended up in Athens, the philosophical capital of the world. But the cosmopolitan Greek city did not meet his expectations. Athens attracted many philosophers and great thinkers, but the majority of people there seemed to be fixated upon money, beauty, clothes, and fame.

Diogenes then started romanticizing a mythical hero – Heracles. He wanted to be virtuous, rather than successful. He rejected the traditional lifestyle of his time and did not want to live in a fixed address. He owned nothing. The philosopher displayed poor manners in public and showed no respect to people. He challenged anything people loved or cared for. All the traditional values of his time. It is even rumored that he mocked Alexander the Great some years before his death. People started comparing him to an uncultured dog.

If taking breakfast is nothing out of place, then it is nothing out of place in the marketplace. But taking breakfast is nothing out of place, therefore it is nothing out of place to take breakfast in the marketplace.”, he said when asked about eating his breakfast in the marketplace of Athens.

The philosopher did not mind being compared to dogs. He found dogs to be virtuous. Dogs are true to their nature and unhypocritical, while humans possess the exact opposite traits. Dogs live in the present, they don’t care where they sleep, and they eat anything. At the same, their instincts help them understand who is a true friend and who is an enemy.

The Cynic finally ended up being captured by pirates and sold as a slave to a Corinthian man named Xeniades. The latter was very impressed by Diogenes. He had a very intriguing personality and, instead of using him in the fields or to do chores, he asked him to tutor his children. Diogenes lived the rest of his life in Corinth, where he was cherished by the people in his household and his local community.

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Other Cynical Philosophers

  • Antisthenes
  • Crates of Thebes
  • Onesicritus
  • Monimus
  • Bion
  • Teles
  • Menippus

The Legend and Allegory of Atlantis | Plato’s Atlantis

The lost city of Atlantis is a legend that survives for thousands of years. According to the myth, it was a utopian civilization with a great naval power. Founded by semi-gods, Atlantis was one of the most affluent and successful city-states in the Mediterranean region. But its people soon started getting greedy and believing they are the greatest in the world. Until the great city sank and disappeared from the face of the Earth.

Is this story real? What is the connection to Plato, the philosopher? And if it is not real, could it be based on a true story? Today, we are resurfacing the story of Atlantis.  

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Plato’s Allegory of Atlantis

The story of Atlantis is a made-up story, and the creator is no other than the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. The philosopher was using allegories to make his points clear. In a previous video, we discussed Plato’s allegory of the “Cave” and its symbolisms. But what is the allegory of the lost city of Atlantis about?

In the Socratic dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”, both written in 360 BC, Plato describes the conversations between his teacher, Socrates, with other thinkers of his time. These include the Pythagorean philosopher Timaeus of Locri and the Athenian politician and author Critias. Although Plato is not involved in the conversation, the main ideas and allegories are attributed to him.

Plato used the city of Atlantis as an example of what “hybris” can do to humanity. How an affluent state can sabotage itself. Hybris is any wrongful action against the divine order, usually stemming from over-confidence. Odysseus, for example, committed Hybris when he attacked a Cyclops for self-defense reasons but, instead of stopping there, he started teasing and mocking him. You can compare it with the concept of bad karma.

Atlantis, according to the philosopher, was a Mediterranean civilization, close to modern-day Gibraltar, that existed thousands of years before Plato’s birth and the beginning of the Classical Era. It was a land surrounded by sea and, from the description, we understand that it was a giant island. It was ruled by kings and it had well-organized military and naval forces. The city had an excellent irrigation system, and its land was fertile. Its god-protector was Poseidon, the god of the sea, and bulls were their sacred animals.

But the rulers of Atlantis were not satisfied with how successful the city was and wanted to dominate the world. Its army started occupying nearby lands and steal their resources. They would enslave people and force them to work for their own benefit. But one small city-state, Athens, wanted to stop the imperialistic plans of Atlantis. The Athenians managed to defeat the Atlantian army and even liberate some of the nearby occupied lands.

What followed was a period of decline for the city of Atlantis. Not only that, but a natural catastrophe gave Atlantis the final blow. Hit by earthquakes and floods, the legendary city sank and disappeared from the face of the Earth. Its rulers and citizens had committed hybris. Blinded by success, they became greedy and wanted more, even if others had to suffer.

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Could It Be Real?

Scholars agree that the story of Atlantis is fictional. Plato is widely known for his imagination and his ability to craft stories to make his points clear. There is no proof that this civilization existed but there are several theories: that Atlantis was located in Santorini, in Spain, even in the Bermuda Triangle. These theories are considered pseudoscientific, rather than scientific.

But could Plato have been inspired by real events and then came up with this fictional city? This is possible. Plato could have been inspired by the destruction of the Minoan civilization (3000 BC – 1100 BC), the first advanced civilization in Europe. The civilization bears a lot of similarities with Atlantis: both located in the Mediterranean, both were islands, both were dedicated to god Poseidon, and both considered bulls as sacred animals.

Just like Atlantis, the Minoans suffered from a series of natural disasters, mostly earthquakes, until the great catastrophe known as the Minoan eruption. A catastrophic volcanic eruption that submerged part of the island of Santorini and caused enormous tsunamis that destroyed the ports of the Minoans in Crete. Not only that, but the ashes that covered the nearby lands, made the soil infertile, causing famine. Archaeologists speculate that this catastrophe caused the decline of this great civilization.

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Plato’s Cave: Understanding the Allegory | #Philosophy

Plato’s Cave is without a doubt one of the allegories that have shaped the western world. In a previous video we discussed Plato’s life and philosophical ideas. You might remember that the ancient Athenian philosopher is well-known for his work “Republic” («Πολιτεία», 375 BC) and the allegories included in it, such as “the Chariot”, “Atlantis”, and “the Cave”. Today, Helinika will provide you with the summary of “the Cave”, which will be followed by an analysis. Let’s dive in together.

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The Background of the Allegory of the Cave

Plato’s Republic is a written dialogue between Socrates and Glaukon, Plato’s older brother. The main subject is justice – specifically what it means to be just and how to rule a just city-state. To this day, it is not clear if this specific dialogue is fictional or real; whether it represents Plato’s or Socrates’ ideas. However, most scholars agree that it was probably Plato who came up with the allegory.

Summary of Plato’s Cave

In Book 7 of the “Republic”, Socrates and Glaukon start talking about the importance of education. Socrates asks Glaukon to imagine an underground house, something similar to a cave. A group of people are held captives since childhood there. The three prisoners, as Socrates calls them, have their limbs tied in a way that does not allow them to move nor change the position of their heads. They are constantly facing a blanc wall and they cannot see themselves or the rest of the people around them.

Behind the prisoners, there is a source of light coming from a fire. Right in front of the fire, various sculptures (idols – είδωλα) depicting everyday objects are being moved by a group of people who can be compared to shadow puppet masters. The prisoners are unaware of the shadow play happening right behind them. All they can see are the shadows of the sculptures that are cast on the blanc wall they are facing and they believe that the shadows are the only real objects existing: the shadow of a tree is a tree, the shadow of a woman is a woman, the shadow of a horse is a horse etc. The prisoners would also play games with each other, such as guessing what shadow would be cast next on the wall. The winners would be praised and considered experts of natural sciences.

Socrates then hypothesized what would happen if a prisoner was freed and was able to see what was happening around him. The prisoner would be in pain by looking straight at the source of the light in the cave, which is the fire. He would immediately look away from the source of the light, since it would be too painful to look at. But, if he then spent a bit more time trying to adjust to the bright light, his vision would become clearer and clearer. He would be able to notice the fire and the idols behind him.

The same goes when the person would now discover the exit of this cave. Direct sunlight is much brighter than the fire in the cave. He would need even more time to see the natural environment around him and distinguish the shadows from the idols and the idols from the true forms of the objects they are depicting. The freed prisoner would then be able to look at the sun and understand how everything is related to it, such as the change of the seasons.


Five Facts About Socrates | #Philosophy

You may know Socrates as the Classical Greek philosopher behind the quote “I know that I know nothing”, who also laid the fundamentals of western philosophy. Here are five facts about the classical Greek philosopher that you may or may not know.

Socrates then suggests that the freed prisoner would rather stay on the surface of the Earth rather than going back into the cave and pretend he is believing what the prisoners believe. But the need to reveal the truth to the other prisoners would be too strong.

Socrates then hypothesizes what would happen if the freed man would go back into the cave. He would need time to adjust into the darkness and he would probably bump into some obstacles in the cave. The prisoners would find his behavior odd and things could only get worse if he tried to convince them of the things he had witnessed inside and outside of the cave. The others would probably make fun of him, then get aggressive, and if he did not stop talking about the truth, they would physically attack him.

Socrates and Glaukon agreed that people shouldn’t judge anyone who may seem confused. They could be trying to adjust from the light of knowledge to the darkness of ignorance or the opposite. And this is something that educators should always keep in mind. They should recognize that humans possess the ability to see the light (the truth) and, instead of forcing the light into their eyes, they should show them the right way and let them explore the opening of the cave all by themselves.

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Symbolisms in Plato’s Cave

As an allegory, Plato’s cave is full of symbolisms. Let’s see the most important ones:

  • The Cave: it represents ignorance, empirical knowledge, and the absence of critical thinking. As a whole, it also symbolizes a failed society that is governed by demagogues and uneducated people.
  • The Fire: the fire in the cave is bright but not as bright as the sun; it symbolizes superficial knowledge and believing in something, instead of understanding it.
  • The Prisoners: they represent ignorant people who can be easily manipulated by demagogues.
  • The Escaped Prisoner: he is the philosopher, the prisoner who manages to escape from the world of senses and reach the world of ideas.
  • The Shadow Players: the people moving the objects behind the prisoners are the demagogues who trick the prisoners into relying onto the things they see, feel, hear, smell, and taste. They also represent sophists – the private tutors of that time who, according to Plato, sell deception.  
  • The Chains: the chains of the prisoners are the five senses that keep people from exploring reality through logic.
  • The Shadows: the shadows on the walls symbolize the perceptions of our senses.
  • The Idols/Sculptures: the idols moving behind the prisoners are the physical items that can be perceived through our senses.
  • The Real Objects: the objects found outside of the cave are the ideas upon which the idols are based on. They are closer to reality than the idols and shadows.
  • The Sun: it represents the absolute truth and the source of reality.
  • The Duality Between Darkness and Light: the darkness represents ignorance, while light symbolizes the world of ideas that can be reached only with cognitive processes and not with our senses.  

Analyzing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave

As mentioned in the beginning, Plato’s Cave revolves around education and what it means to be a good teacher. There are also some clear hints of his disappointment for Socrates’ death. On a deeper level, however, it is a story that advocates rationalism over empiricism. But let’s take things from the beginning.

When Plato wrote the “Republic”, it was very common to hire private tutors to teach you how to excel in philosophy, rhetoric, music, mathematics, and other subjects. These tutors were called sophists (derives from the Greek «σοφία»= wisdom), which in Greek implies that they possessed some type of wisdom. Plato, however, was skeptical towards them, just like Socrates.

That is because the sophists were basically the predecessors of empiricists. They believed that knowledge comes from sensory experience – touch, smell, vision, taste, and hearing. Plato, on the other hand, was a rationalist. He stated that truth is not sensory but intellectual.

Since Plato believed that our senses cannot provide us with true knowledge, he depicted sophists as puppet masters in a shadow play; keeping people chained to their sensory experiences. The philosopher was also critical of the teaching style of sophists. The latter were presenting themselves as leading experts and they were paid to make their students memorize the knowledge they have acquired from experience.

As Plato and Glaukon agree on in the end, the good teacher is the philosopher not the sophist. The one who helps the student find the truth through reasoning, rather than someone who believes his students are “blind” – in other words, incapable of reasoning.

The allegory is also a cautionary tale of any reasonable person who may try to converse with an ignorant person. The ignorant person might find the reasonable person funny or weird. If the reasonable person tries to reason with them, they will probably become defensive and if they feel threatened, they will become aggressive.

Plato’s bitterness for Socrates’ death is clear in this allegory. Socrates, Plato’s teacher and one of the most controversial thinkers of his time, was sentenced to death at the age of 71 on 399 BC. He was imprisoned and poisoned after being accused of corrupting the youth of Athens with his teachings.

Plato’s Cave can be interpreted in different ways today. Many people see a connection between the shadows on the cave’s wall with the TV screens on a modern home’s walls. Do the things we watch through these screens mislead us? Do they help us think reasonably and discover the world of ideas or do they keep us locked in the realm of sensory experiences?

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Modern References of Plato’s Cave

Plato’s Cave has significantly influenced western society. A great example of that is the broad use of the duality of light and darkness which still represents knowledge and ignorance.

Let’s not forget that the Age of Reason in European history (17th and 18th centuries) is known as the Age of Enlightenment. Although the Enlightenment did not abolish the evidence of senses, it did place reason as the primary source of knowledge. It was an era that put an emphasis on scientific method and reductionism. We often compare that time with the “Dark Ages” of the Early Medieval Period.

Even the Illuminati, the members of the Bavarian Enlightenment-era secret society that wanted to oppose superstition and religious influence over public life, were influenced by the Cave’s symbolisms. Illuminati means “Enlightened” – although the name is associated with fictional secret societies with darker motives today.   

Over the years, many historical figures have quoted Plato’s Cave or used its symbolisms in their speeches. Civil rights movement activist Martin Luther King has been quoted saying: “Everything that we see is a shadow cast by that which we do not see.”

There are also plenty of books, plays, and movies that seem to be inspired to some level to Plato’s Cave. The biggest reference could not be other than the “Matrix’ (1999). Although the plot is an allegory for transformation, the influences of the Cave’s symbolisms are everywhere in the film. A great example is the existence of two worlds, the imprisoned people, the illusions, and the weaknesses of our senses.

What is quite interesting is that Plato’s Cave is also used by many conspiracy theorists to validate their beliefs based on the fact that these beliefs are supported by a minority of people. However, many of these theories are based on sensory experiences – something that completely contradicts Plato’s allegory.  

What We Can Learn from Plato’s Cave:

  1. We cannot rely on our five senses.
  2. Truth can be painful at first but, with time, you will never want to go back to ignorance.
  3. If you acquire knowledge that few people possess, don’t expect everyone’s approval.
  4. Forcing the truth on someone will make them defensive.
  5. Instead of arguing with ignorant people, guide them to the right path and let them find the truth on their own.

Five Facts About Plato | #Philosophy

You may already know that Plato (428/427 BCE – 348-347 BCE) was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. You may also be familiar with him thanks to the Italian Renaissance fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican called “The School of Athens”. Here are five facts about Plato that you may or may not know. Stay till the end and comment down below whether you knew some of the facts already.

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Facts about the Athenian philosopher Plato:

  1. Plato was the student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle
  2. Plato is one of the most influential authors to have ever existed
  3. Plato was an aristocrat in body and mind
  4. Plato was the founder of “the Academy”, the first higher learning institution in the West

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Plato was the student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle

The Athenian philosopher was closely connected to two other highly influential ancient Greek philosophers. Plato was a student of the Athenian philosopher Socrates, whom we know mostly through Plato’s writings. Plato later taught many influential philosophers and leaders, including Aristotle, who is credited with the earliest study of logic.

Plato is one of the most influential authors to have ever existed

Although his teacher, Socrates, did not leave any written heritage, Plato dedicated his life to writing. The philosopher did not view writing merely as a tool to organize and record his ideas, but also as a creative process that he really enjoyed. You might have heard of Plato’s dialogues; a collection of written conversations between different philosophers on various topics, including ethics, politics, physics, and metaphysics. Perhaps, the most well-known dialogue of Plato is “The Republic”, which we will cover in detail in a future video.

The philosopher is also the creator of some highly-influential allegories, such as the “Cave” (which we will also discuss in another video), and his writing style is often described as “poetic”. At the same time, Plato often expressed his disapproval of poets and poetry, because “it is based on falsehood”. Based on this idea, poetry is an “illusion” that drives us away from the “truth”.

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Plato was an aristocrat in body and mind

Plato was born into an aristocratic Athenian family. His father was Ariston, a descendant of king Codrus of Athens, and his mother was Perictione, who descended from an oligarchic family. The philosopher considered Aristocracy the best form of governance. Aristocracy places the power of a city-state in the hands of a few. The main difference from monarchy is that, in monarchy, the rulers inherit their power, whereas, in aristocracy, the rulers are selected based on their skills. The aristocrats are «άριστοι» (aristoi – meaning excellent).  Plato suggested that the ideal ruler is the philosopher, the lover of wisdom, and he even stated that philosophers, who usually despise power, should be forced to rule a city.

Plato was the founder of “the Academy”, the first higher learning institution in the West

The Platonic Academy was founded in 387 BC in Athens. Plato’s Academy was the first school of higher education in the West and it attracted countless great thinkers, such as Aristotle, Heraclides, and Eudoxus. Students would be taught mathematics, dialectics, natural science, among other sciences. You can visit the archaeological site of the Academy of Plato the next time you visit Athens.

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Plato was the first most influential dreamer and idealist

Although Plato despised illusions, he is generally perceived as the “dreamer” among the ancient Greek philosophers, especially when compared to the more rational Aristotle. That is because classical idealism is closely associated with Plato, although the philosopher cannot be considered an idealist in the modern sense. In philosophy, idealism is focusing on the perception of reality from a metaphysical point of view. Plato is often considered as the “earliest representative of metaphysical objective idealism”.

Did you know any of these facts about Plato? Leave a comment down below. If you enjoy watching videos from Helinika, don’t forget to subscribe and follow the platform on other social media!

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This Is Your Sign for Learning Greek

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Five Facts About Socrates | #Philosophy


You may know Socrates as the Classical Greek philosopher behind the quote “I know that I know nothing”, who also laid the fundamentals of western philosophy. Here are five facts about the classical Greek philosopher that you may or may not know.

Facts About Socrates:

  1. Socrates Was The Object of Satire
  2. Socrates Didn’t Write His Ideas and Methods
  3. Socrates Criticized Democracy
  4. We All Use Socrates’ Methods
  5. Socrates Was Sentenced to Death at the Age of 71

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