Drosoulites: The Greek Phantom Warriors in Crete | Greek Folklore

It was a hot and humid summer morning in Crete. A group of hikers had already started walking by the sea towards the castle of Frangokastello, near the town of Sfakia. Everything was quiet and all they could hear was the song of the cicadas and the relaxing sound of waves.

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As soon as they reached the Venetian fort, they spent some time staring at the ripples forming on the sea surface. But it didn’t take long till they all instinctively turned their heads towards the nearby monastery of Agios Charalambos. What they saw left them frozen in fear. Tall shadowy figures holding medieval weapons started sprinting towards them. Some of these warriors looked as if they rode phantom horses.

The hikers couldn’t speak nor move; they stood there mesmerized by the group of phantom warriors that ran towards them. The closer the shadows appeared to be, the smaller they become. And just like that, few meters away from them, they disappeared. Later that day, they learned from the locals that they were lucky enough to experience seeing the Drosoulites, the phantom warriors of Crete.

The Greek Folktale of Drosoulites | Greek Folklore

According to a local legend, a group of Greek fighters who lost their lives during the battle of Frangkokastello, still haunt the area. They appear as ghost fighters on some spring or summer mornings, surprising those who visit the castle and the nearby area. There are countless reports of locals and visitors who have witnessed this phenomenon. Some of them, had never heard of the legend but still saw the shadowy figures approaching the castle. Their appearance usually lasts for ten minutes, according to reports.

The battle of Frangkocastello occurred during the years of the Greek war for freedom and specifically on May 17, 1828. The army consisted of 350 men and was led by Hatzimichalis Dalianis from Epirus. The army protected the fort for more than seven days and continued fighting even when victory seemed unrealistic. They all died in the battlefield.  

Although this phenomenon is linked to the battle of 1828, the castle’s history is much longer than that. Just few kilometers away from Sfakia, Frangkokastello was built in 1374 to protect Venetian nobles from pirates during the Frankokratia, the era during which French and Italian states were established on the territory of the Byzantine Empire.

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Drosoulites: Ghosts or a Natural Phenomenon?

Since the appearance of Drosoulites has been reported multiple times over the past two centuries, it is more than a local folktale. Scientists have tried to debunk the myth, with the most common explanation being that it is simply a meteorological phenomenon.

To be more precise, it is believed that it is a mirage from the coast of North Africa. However, there is no definite or clear answer. What we do know is that it occurs on late May or early June, usually in the morning, when the weather is humid and warm.

What do you think of this folk legend? Is there a similar folktale where you come from? Leave a comment in the comment section.

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The Story of The Haunted Bridge of Arta | Greek Folklore

Arta is a picturesque town in Epirus region in northwestern Greece. The area is rich in folktales from Greece’s recent past. Its vast green forests and gigantic mountains have inspired locals to tell stories of fairies and other mythical creatures. But there is one story that stands out the most: the story of the so-called haunted bridge of Arta.

The Bridge of Arta

A long time ago, the Romans built a bridge over the Arachthos river near Arta. This bridge was reconstructed many times over the years and is still standing in the 21st Century. Its most recent reconstruction was during the 17th Century, when a peculiar folk song that narrated the story of the bridge appeared for the first time.

The story talked about hauntings and human sacrifice, although the latter was not a local custom. Some people say that this folktale was meant to scare the Ottoman Turks away from the area, although others see a resemblance to other similar stories from around the world. But what is this story even talking about?

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The Folktale of the Bridge of Arta

According to a 17th Century legend, when the Ottomans reached Epirus, they wanted to reconstruct some of the works of the Romans that had been destroyed over the years. Their project included a beautiful stone bridge that crossed Aracthos river near the town of Arta.

A group of local men was assigned with this difficult task, since the stone bridge was in ruins and only its foundations were still standing. The master mason was a young, skilled worker who was newly married. He was ambitious and determined to reconstruct the bridge as fast as possible. However, rebuilding the bridge was proven to be an impossible task.

As the folksong says: “They were building all day long. At night, (the bridge) would collapse”.

One day, a nightingale flew over the builders and stood on a nearby branch. But the bird did not start chattering as expected. It started speaking with a clear human voice and revealed what should be done to complete the bridge. According to the bird, a human must be sacrificed on the spot to haunt the place. The haunting would keep the bridge stable and safe.

“(It shouldn’t be) an orphan, a stranger, or a traveler.”, the bird explained, but rather the beautiful and beloved wife of the master mason.

As soon as the man heard that, he started worrying and told the nightingale to tell his wife to take her time with preparing his lunch and come much later than usual to visit him on the construction site. But the bird misheard him and told his wife to get ready quickly and run straight to the bridge.

The young woman arrived at the scene and immediately noticed that her husband seemed sad and anxious. One of the builders told her that he accidentally dropped his ring in the foundations of the bridge and that is why he feels blue.

The young wife didn’t think twice before jumping into the construction to search for the ring. And that is when the masons started throwing mortar and lime and rocks at the opening to build over the old foundations. The woman realized that she was trapped into the building and the men continued with the constructions without hearing her cries for help.

And that is when she revealed that her sisters had a similar fate to hers, all being sacrificed in a similar manner across Europe. The woman started cursing the bridge and the masons, saying that it will shake and cause people to fall into the river as soon as they step foot on it.

“Maiden, change your word and give another curse

for you have a one dear brother who may cross this bridge.”, someone told her over the rubble.

The woman then remembered her youngest brother and immediately took the curse back. She couldn’t risk her brother dying too.

“May the bridge shake, like the wild mountains do

May crossing pedestrians fall, like the wild birds do

for I have a brother abroad who may cross this bridge.”, she exclaimed. And the bridge has indeed survived to this day.

Sacrifices, Masonry, and Foundations

This particular story and the folksong that goes with it, are of particular interest. Why would a Christian Orthodox population in the 17th Century come up with a story about human sacrifice? And why would a haunting keep a bridge stable?

People from Arta often say that the story was made up to convince the Ottomans that the bridge was haunted and therefore they should avoid crossing it. In fact, there is no proof or even speculation that people engaged in rituals that involved human sacrifice in Byzantine and Ottoman Greece. However, this folktale somehow involves the archetype of the beautiful maiden who is sacrificed for the greater good. A pattern that we find in many ancient legends that have survived over the years.

The folktale of Arta remind us of two ancient Greek legends in particular: the one of princess Iphigeneia and the one of princess Antigone. Iphigeneia was a legendary maiden that was going to be sacrificed by her father who wanted to sail safely to Troy, but managed to escape with the help of goddess Artemis. Antigone, on the other hand, was a young woman that was sentenced to death for disobeying the laws of her uncle – she was thrown alive into an underground cave to die slowly, just like the maiden of Arta who was captured alive in the bridge’s foundations.

Although human sacrifice was not a local custom at that time, small animal sacrifices did occur in many villages in the Balkan peninsula before and during the Ottoman occupation. Birds, chickens, or roosters were killed at the foundations or doorsteps of newly built houses to protect the owners from earthquakes, floods, but also ghosts and evil spirits. They believed that the animal would haunt the construction and the building would not collapse. These customs were not allowed by the Christian Orthodox Church, however, some people continued doing them over the years.

The foundations of buildings seem to be of particular interest in Greek and European folklore. In some Greek villages, locals would allow snakes to find refuge in the foundations of their homes. The snakes were considered protectors of the homes and were very much welcomed to co-exist with humans. They would eat all the rats and mice that would try to enter the house.

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Similar Stories Around the World

Believe it or not, stories similar to the bridge of Arta exist all around the world. Have you ever heard of the Irish-American song named “London Bridge Is Falling Down”? The song implies that no matter how good the materials the masons use are, the bridge of London will always collapse. What’s essential is a human to guard it all day and night – a human that will be sacrificed in its foundations. In Sweden, there is a folktale that says that children were buried alive to stop the spread of a disease in a small town.

Are these stories true or imaginative? Also, are there any similar folktales in the part of the world where you come from? Leave a comment in the comment section.

Greek Christmas Trolls: Kallikantzaroi | Greek Folklore


Small, chthonic creatures that resemble trolls, elves, or goblins. If they make it into your home, they steal your food, hide your tools and personal items, ruin your furniture, and make a mess wherever they go. Some fear them, others think they’re simply a bunch of tricksters. But, according to Greek folklore, they try to destroy the tree of life by cutting down its roots. We’re talking about the “kallikantzaroi” (kallikantzaros in singular), the legendary Christmas trolls.

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What Are the Kallikantzaroi? | Greek Folklore

Kallikantzaroi are supernatural creatures that, according to Greek folklore, cause all kind of mischief. They are chthonic, which means they reside in the underworld. Kallikantzaroi are also short, smelly, hairy, and objectively unattractive. They despise humanity and some say that they are minions of the Devil. They are not allowed to walk on the surface of the Earth.

According to Greek Orthodox tradition, between the 25th of December and the 6th of January, known as the twelve days of Christmas, they are allowed to roam freely. That’s because the waters are “unbaptized” or “unclean” during this time period. On the day of the Theophany, known as Epiphany in the West, the kallikantzaroi run back to the nearest caves, tunnels, and knotholes, and reenter the underworld.  

Facts About the Kallikantzaroi:

  • Kallikantzaroi are supernatural beings similar to trolls and goblins.
  • They are Devil’s minions and are afraid of Holy Water, religious symbols, and fire.
  • Kallikantzaroi are chthonic: they reside under the surface of the Earth, where they try to cut the tree of life.
  • These creatures are able to visit our world between Christmas and Epiphany.
  • These days are called “dodekaimero” (12 days) – a term used since Byzantine times to describe the “dirty days” before the Epiphany.
  • Kallikantzaroi are part of Greek folklore; similar creatures are also part of other countries’ traditions (e.g. Bulgaria).
  • They are usually depicted as hairy, smelly, and deformed.
  • Kallikantzaroi eat insects, snakes, mice, and rotten fruits; they can also cause your food to spoil.
  • They harass people, destroy furniture, steal and misplace items.
  • If they see you walking alone at night, they might grab your arm and force you to dance with them until you pass out.
  • In some parts of Greece, they are considered evil and dangerous, rather than mischievous.
  • They have a “boss” who they call their “mother”; she is the one giving them orders on who to target.
  • Some people believe that kallikantzaroi used to be people who were never baptized or committed crimes that turned them into monsters.
  • To protect themselves, people used to leave food on their roofs and doorsteps to appease the kallikantzaroi; similar to how Western Europeans “trick or treat” during Halloween.
  • There are countless names and nicknames for them: “karkantzelia”, “verveloudes”, “kalkatzania”…

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When Was the Legend of the Kallikantzaros Narrated for the First Time?

It’s not clear when this legend came to life. According to Nikolaos Politis, father of the Greek folklore studies, Kallikantzaroi could refer to how the first Christians described the pagan carnival-goers, who often dressed up as animals and looked for trouble.

Foreign historians and archaeologists find a connection between the modern Greek legend of the kallikantzaros and the ancient Greek myth of satyrs. Satyrs were male nature spirits; they resembled animals and caused mischief.

On the other hand, kallikantzaroi reside in the underworld and roam our world during the “dodekaimero”. This reminds us of the ancient Greek belief that the souls of the dead were able to visit the surface of the Earth during this time period. Some archaeologists see a connection there. Are there any similar legends where you live? You can leave your own stories down below! If you enjoyed watching this video, you can like, share, and subscribe. In Helinika’s YouTube channel, you can find plenty of videos dedicated to Greek history, language, and culture.

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