Zeus is the ruler of Mount Olympus and the leader of all Greek gods and goddesses but also humans. His arrival was predicted by an orator. Before Zeus was in charge, the world was ruled by a Titan with cannibalistic tendencies: Cronus. Cronus feared the prophecy that said that one of his children would violently overthrow him. As soon as his wife would give birth to a baby, he would eat it alive. Zeus was the Titan’s youngest son and the only one who survived. Zeus saved his siblings from his father’s belly and destroyed him. He became Greece’s leading god, and he is often associated with the “father god” of monotheistic religions. However, his appearance and personality are far from these figures.
Zeus Looks Much Hotter Than You Might Think
Fatherly god figures are usually portrayed as old wise men with long white beards, rather than muscular and powerful young men. In some modern-day films and depictions, Zeus is also portrayed as an old man. But, in reality, Greek gods and goddesses were thought to be fit, young, and more attractive than most humans. The same goes for Zeus. Ancient Greek sculptures and pieces of art depict him this way. Although he sports a beard, his facial hair is not that of an old man. Zeus’ appearance evolved over time and there was a time when he was mostly depicted as a wise grandfather.
Zeus is an attractive god who used his looks to seduce mortal women on a regular basis. It is impossible to count all of his affairs. Zeus is married to his sister, Hera, who ends up punishing the women Zeus sleeps with. When the ruler of Mount Olympus is rejected in his regular form, he transforms himself into different animals. He appeared to Europe as a bull, to Danae as golden rain, and Leda embraced Zeus in his swan form.
Zeus Weapon of Choice is the Thunderbolt
Zeus’s signature weapon is the thunderbolt. That is why he is also named as the “god of thunder”, throwing lightning bolts to his enemies from Mount Olympus. Zeus’s weapon was created by the Cyclops as a “thank you” gift for freeing them from the tyranny of the Titans.
Zeus Is Associated with Hospitality (Xenios Zeus)
Apart from the ruler of the gods and the god of thunder, Zeus has also another role; that of Xenios. Xenios Zeus is the god of hospitality (philoxenia). The latter was taken very seriously in ancient Greece. There were sacred rules that were followed religiously by those welcoming someone in their home. At the same time, people who wandered in places they’ve never been before had a god to pray to for protection. That was Xenios Zeus.
Zeus Was Raised by a… Goat
As mentioned earlier, Zeus was the only child of Cronus that was not consumed alive. That is because Rhea, his mother, had managed to hide him far from his tyrannical father. Cronus ended up eating a rock, which was swaddled like a baby. Zeus then grew up far away from his family in a cave in the island of Crete. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea. In some variations of the myth, Amalthea is not a goat but… a beautiful nymph.
Zeus Has a Different Name in Modern Greek
Ancient Greeks called Zeus “Ζευς”, hence his international name. But modern Greeks refer to Zeus as “Δίας” (Dias). If you studied ancient Greek in school, then you might know that the genitive of “Ζευς” is “Διός”. And it is assumed that this is the reason why modern Greeks call Zeus “Δίας”.
Do you have any other facts to add to the list? You can leave a comment down below! If you enjoyed watching this video, like, subscribe and share with a friend who loves ancient Greek mythology. At helinika.com and Helinika’s YouTube channel you will find plenty of articles and videos on the Greek language, history, and culture.
“Live your myth in Greece” – the phrase used to be Greece’s motto in some older international tourism campaigns. And that was for a good reason. Imagine stepping at the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis or cliff jumping at the home of the Cabeirian Mysteries. A trip to Greece is not just a seaside vacation but also a time-travelling experience.
If you have subscribed to Helinika’s YouTube channel, there is a great chance you love ancient Greek mythology and history, while also enjoying travelling. Here are seven Greek destinations and sites for people who would love to visit the most mythical places in Greece. Before we get started, make sure to like this video if you love travelling and mythology!
One of the most important Panhellenic religious sanctuaries was situated in a small town in Ilia (Elis), in the Peloponnese. The town was named after the Olympian gods and goddesses, and it is still known as “Olympia”. Not only that but this is where the ancient Olympic Games were held every four years. A modern town with the same name is situated near “Archaea Olympia”, which is the ancient town and archaeological site. In ancient Olympia you will find ancient temples and training grounds that are maintained in a very good condition. Great examples are the “Palaestra”, the training grounds of wrestlers, and the ruins of the Temple of Hera. A trip to Olympia can be compared to a… time-travelling experience.
Samothrace Island, Northern Aegean Sea
Samothrace has been mentioned in many of Helinika’s articles and videos. That is because it is not just one of Greece’s hidden beauties, but also one of the country’s most mysterious sites. The Greek island is located in the northern Aegean Sea and it attracts people who love nature and mythology. Samothrace (also seen as Samothraki) was a major religious site in ancient Greece. It was the place where the ancient Cabeirian Mysteries were held, while it is still the home of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods; a temple complex to a group of enigmatic Greek gods. By visiting Samothrace you can spend your summer vacation by the sea, in close proximity to one of the world’s most mysterious places.
Delos Island, Cyclades
Delos is another mysterious Greek island. Situated at the heart of the Cyclades, Delos is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. It was also reportedly the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Today it is a UNESCO World Heritage site which can only be visited during the day. Overnight stays are not allowed but you can book a day trip from the nearby island of Mykonos.
Eleusina, West Attica
Eleusina (also seen as Eleusis) is a small town in West Attica, in close proximity to the city of Athens. The town is mostly known for its archaeological site – one of the most visited and well-maintained sites in Greece. The town is associated with goddess Demetra and her daughter, Persephone, and it was the place where the enigmatic Eleusinian Mysteries were held. Eleusina is a place every mythology lover should visit at least once in their lifetime.
Most Greek myths and epic poems involve a prophecy and an orator. One of the most trusted ancient Greek oracles was the oracle of Delphi in Phocis, central Greece. You may have heard the name Pytho, who had the role of Pythia. Pythia was the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, who would give oracles for the future with the rustling of the leaves. Today, the area is an archaeological site and a UNESCO World Heritage site. A new town with the same name is in close proximity to the archaeological site. Visiting Delphi is truly a magical experience.
Athens is the capital of the Hellenic Republic of Greece and a popular destination for people who love history and mythology. Democracy was born in Athens. In Classical Antiquity, it was the most important cultural, artistic, and philosophical center in the West. The city is named after goddess Athena who, according to an old myth, offered the Athenians the olive tree. The production and export of olive oil reportedly contributed to the city’s financial success. The Greek capital has plenty of archaeological sites and museums, such as the Acropolis and the ancient Agora. Visiting Athens should definitely be on your list.
Mt. Olympus, Pieria
Ancient Greeks believed that Mount Olympus was the home of the twelve gods and goddesses who influenced every aspect of their lives. Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, and the rest of the Olympians. Olympus is a real mountain located in Pieria in Northern Greece. It is the highest mountain in Greece and a World Biosphere Reserve. Gods and goddesses were thought to reside at 2.917 meters at its highest peak, Mytikas. Many hikers and climbers ascend to Mytikas to see Greece from Zeus’ perspective. If you are not an avid hiker, there are many traditional villages all around Olympus that you can drive to. There are also countless ancient and medieval sites, such as the archaeological park of Dion and the ancient city of Pydna. It goes without saying that Mount Olympus is the number one destination for people who love history, mythology, and nature.
Now, I am curious to hear if you have ever visited any of these places. If you liked this video, you can hit the like button and subscribe to stay connected.
When looking for the evilest ancient Greek god or goddess, usually three come to mind: Pluton/Hades, Pan, and Hecate. But what if I told you that there is another divine being that shares more characteristics with the devil, than the previous three.
Pluton was the brother of Zeus, Hera, and Poseidon. He was the most unfortunate one because he ended up being offered the underworld as his kingdom, when the rest resided in Mount Olympus. However, Pluton willingly agreed to take care of Hades, the ancient Greek kingdom of the dead, and all the chthonic deities that resided there.
Hades is often described as the ancient Greek version of hell since it is located under the ground. But Hades was both heaven and hell. And Pluton had both positive and negative traits. He had abducted his niece, Persephone, but Zeus and other Olympian gods had committed similar acts. He was feared because he was associated with death, but he was not considered evil.
Pan and Hecate were two chthonic deities; they also resided under the surface of the Earth. Hecate is associated with witchcraft and magic and got a bad reputation in late antiquity and Medieval times. But she wasn’t necessarily an evil goddess. She was actually the only Titan who was liked and respected by the Olympians and she was the only one who felt bad for Demeter and helped her find her daughter, Persephone.
Pan on the other hand is not only a chthonic deity but he also has some physical similarities to the devil. He is half-man, half-goat. He is a trickster but, in certain circumstances, he can instill fear to people. For example, when Greeks and Persians were fighting in the battle of Marathon, Pan exited a cave and started yelling and making horrifying sounds. He caused panic to the Persians – and now you know where the word pan-ic comes from. But he was never considered an evil god.
There is in fact another deity from ancient Greek mythology who is the most diabolical of them all.
Eris: The Evilest Greek Goddess
The devil is the personification of evil. In Greek, the term «διάβολος» derives from the Greek verb «διαβάλω» (to slander). It represents all negative feelings but primarily jealousy and power-seeking by creating division. Just like the serpent that offered the apple to Eve in the creation myth. The snake slandered God and instilled the idea of rebellion to the first humans. It created division.
By looking at ancient Greek myths and specifically at the Homeric hymns, we can easily detect a goddess who, not only created division motivated by jealousy, but also did this by offering… an apple. And the result was a violent war that we call the Trojan War.
“Strife whose wrath is relentless, she is the sister and companion of murderous Ares, she who is only a little thing at the first, but thereafter grows until she strides on the earth with her head striking heaven. She then hurled down bitterness equally between both sides as she walked through the onslaught making men’s pain heavier.”, Homer says about Eris.
“Potter is angry with potter, craftsman with craftsman, and beggar is jealous of beggar (…)”, writes Hesiod in Works and Days.
Eris (Έριδα) is the Greek goddess of strife and discord. Contrary to Pan, Hades, and Hecate, Eris had no temples in ancient Greece. It is safe to say that she was the least liked deity. She is also thought to have inspired countless evil characters in fairytales, including Maleficent in Sleeping Beauty. She even inspired a parody religion in the 1950s called “Discordianism”.
According to some sources, she was the daughter of the Night and she also gave birth to many children – including Ponos (pain), Loimos (death by pestilence), and Fonos (Murder). She is supposedly behind every fight, divorce, and problems that result from jealousy. But she is mostly well-known for the “apple of discord myth”.
Once upon a time, the mortal king named Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis got married on the mountain range of Pelion. All gods and goddesses were invited to the reception to celebrate the union of a mortal with deity. All except one: Eris. It was deemed inappropriate to invite the goddess of discord in the celebration of a marital union.
But Eris found a way to bring chaos from a distance. The ancient Greek goddess approached the wedding party holding a golden apple. She had inscribed on the apple the phrase: “to the fairest of them all”. Once she saw a group of goddesses, Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite, chatting with each other, she tossed the apple towards them and left.
What ensued was a vanity-fueled dispute among the goddesses, who asked for the help of a beautiful mortal man, Paris. They asked Paris to give his honest opinion but, they then proceeded to offer him different prices in return. Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love and probably the objective winner of the prize, offered Paris the only thing he was missing: a partner to stand by his side. Aphrodite ensured him that he will marry the “most beautiful woman in the world” who was no other than Helen, queen of Sparta. She won and a new war soon began.
If you enjoyed watching this video feel free to like and subscribe. Starting next week, videos will be posted every Tuesday and Thursday. Videos on the Greek language on Tuesdays and videos on the Greek history and culture on Thursdays. The videos will be available on demand, so you can watch them anytime.
One of the most underrated ancient Greek heroes is Jason, the prince of Iolcos and husband of the witch Medea, who you might know from the ancient Greek tragedy with the same name. Jason is the hero of the myth of the Argonauts, the sailors of the legendary ship named Argo, and the main character in the epic poem Argonautica by Apollonius Rhodius. The legend of Jason is actually one of the most fascinating ancient Greek myths and there are plenty of conspiracy theories surrounding this topic. Today, we are following the hero to Colchis, where he travels to obtain the mythical golden fleece.
Facts About Jason, Argo, and The Argonauts | How It All Began
Jason was the son of Aeson, king of the city of Iolcos in Thessaly. God Herme’s blood run in his family and he was the student of the Centaur Chiron in nearby Pelion. Prince Jason was actually sent to live with the half-man – half-horse creature when his uncle, Pelias, took over the kingdom of Iolcos. Pelias started killing the descendants of his brother, the rightful king, except for newborn Jason. His mother and her maids had faked his death: as soon as he was born, the women started crying over his cries, saying he was a stillborn. Then, they escorted him out of the palace and hid him in the woods of the nearby mountain range.
Jason was raised by wise Chiron and he was taught hunting, music, and medicine. He was a natural-born leader and he knew that he was the rightful king of Iolcos. As soon as the prince started approaching adulthood, he visited his birthplace to announce to Pelias that he is now ready to sit on his throne.
Pelias immediately remembered a prophecy he had heard many years ago. He had been warned by an oracle that a man with one sandal would try to dethrone him. When the young man approached him, he looked at his feet. This man named Jason was wearing only one sandal; the other was lost while he was trying to help an older woman, who was actually goddess Hera dressed as a peasant. The cunning king knew he must be strategic and not infuriate Jason. Otherwise, he would risk getting killed.
“To take my throne, which you shall, you must go in a quest to find the golden fleece.”, he said, knowing that the task would be impossible to complete.
In Greek, it is called «το χρυσόμαλλο δέρας». The golden fleece was the fleece -as the name suggests- of a mythical golden-wooled flying ram. This ram was called Chrysomallos, meaning “golden hair”, and was sent by Poseidon to save prince Phrixus from being sacrificed to end the drought in his kingdom. The young man was saved similarly to Iphigeneia and similar stories of princes and princesses being saved by animals were quite popular in ancient Greece.
Chrysomallos, the flying ram, brought Phrixus to Colchis, an area on the coast of the Black Sea, where modern-day Georgia is located. According to the legend, Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Poseidon (other sources mention Zeus), as it was intended. Then, he hung the ram’s shiny fleece from a tree, which was guarded by a serpent. The description resembles that of a dragon, an important detail for some conspiracy theorists. The golden fleece was so well guarded that soon became a symbol of authority and leadership. Whoever was able to attain it would be able to lead any group, any community, any city. As for the spirit of Chrysomallos, it is said that the animal became a constellation and it represents the sign of Aries in Greek astrology.
Jason’s Quest | The Journey to Colchis | The Argonautica
Jason was intrigued by the idea of traveling to a foreign land to obtain a status symbol. He didn’t want to be offered the throne so easily. Like other ancient Greek heroes, he wanted to prove his worth. And this is how the quest to Colchis began.
Prince Jason gathered some of the bravest, strongest, most disciplined, and smartest men from all over Greece, including Hercules. He then made sure that he and his 49 men would travel with the safest and fastest ship that was ever created. According to Apollonius Rhodius, the builder Argus constructed the ship Argo with the help of goddess Athena. The latter favored highly intelligent and strategic people, as we have seen throughout this entire video series.
The Argonauts in Lemnos
Argo is still one of the most legendary ships of all times and it is said to have flied over the skies and turned into a constellation. Thanks to its clever design and great weather conditions, the ship took the men safely to the island of Lemnos. There, the Argonauts learned that all the male residents of the island have been killed.
The local women revealed that they were angered by the fact that the men were unfaithful to them and had abducted women from Thrace to keep them as slaves. It was later revealed that goddess Aphrodite was to blame. The goddess of romance and beauty was forgotten by the Lemnian women who paid no tribute to her. And that is why she decided to make the local men look for women elsewhere.
The only man who was spared from the wrath of the Lemnian women was king Thoas, whose daughter could not bear the idea of killing him. His daughter was no other than Hypsipyle. The young woman was immediately attracted to prince Jason, who ended up getting pregnant by him. The entire crew ended up impregnating the women who were left on the island and then departed to continue their quest. If you are aware of the tragedy called Medea, then you should know that Jason had commitment issues when it comes to relationships.
Argo’s next stop was the Arctonisos or Bear Island, which is basically an island in the Sea of Marmara, known as the Propontis. This area connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea and it is rich in marble. The Bear Island was ruled by king Cyzicus, a hospitable and amicable man who made sure that Jason and his crew-members had a comfortable stay at his palace.
King Cyzicus wanted to warn the Argonauts to avoid sailing to the eastern side of the island, since they were constantly getting attacked by the Pelasgians and his army was always guarding the east coast. However, he ended up getting distracted and forgot to mention this important detail to Jason.
After the Argonauts departed, a storm started, and they soon lost their orientation. The men ended up on the east coast of Bear Island, where they were attacked by the army of Cyzicus. The latter thought that they were approached by enemies and the Argonauts were unaware that they had ended up at the same island. Jason and his crew ended up killing the majority of Cyzicus soldiers and Cyzicus himself. When they realized what was going on, it was way too late. The Argonauts were quick to judge the situation and why they were being attacked. They ended up killing the people who had hosted them. The people who fed them and prepared them for the rest of their trip. The Argonauts left the island only after mourning the dead and paying for a costly burial for Cyzicus and his army. Cyzicus’ sons took over the island and the Argonauts sailed to Mysia in Asia Minor.
The Argonauts in Mysia and in the Land of the Berbryces
According to some sources, Hercules was left in Mysia. He was either lured there by nymphs and never returned to Argo or, according to the historian Pherecydes, the ship complaint about his weight and asked him to disembark. The most interesting variation of the story is, however, that Hercules stayed on the island after his lover, Hylas, fell in love with a local nymph. In any case, Jason was extremely sad that one of his bravest men chose a different path.
Argo’s next stop was the land of Berbryces. The people there were not very friendly. Their king, Amycos, challenged one of them to a boxing match and, for the first time in history, the king lost. The Argonauts managed to leave the island before they got slaughtered by the local army.
The Argonauts were able to surpass many challenges during their trip to Colchis. One of their greatest achievements was scaring away the Harpies from the home of king Phineus. The latter was a cursed Prophet who was not only blinded by Zeus, but was hunted down by some terrifying birds called Harpies. These birds would steal Phineus’ food and torment him. The Argonauts felt bad for the man and chased the enormous birds to scare them away. The Harpies left the area and never returned. Phineus thanked the men by revealing the dangers they would encounter in their trip. He warned them of the Symplegades, the terrifying rocks of the Bosporus that were classing together every time a boat would try to pass by.
When the Argo approached the Clashing Rocks of the Bosporus, Jason released a dove. He wanted to see how fast they would have to go to cross the stream successfully. The bird flew between the cliffs and the rocks managed to cut only a small part of its tail. The Argonauts used all of their strength and also managed to go through the rocks by only sacrificing a small part of the stern ornament. From that moment on, the Symplegades stopped moving.
Adventures By The Edge of The World and Arriving to Colchis
The Argonauts continued their journey and encountered many obstacles as they were approaching what was believed to be “the edge of the world”. They lost some of their men from wild boars and mysterious diseases. They encountered the Stymphalian Birds and managed to scare them away with their growling sounds. They also offered a helping hand to four shipwrecked brothers who warned them about the terrifying serpent that protects the Golden Fleece.
With the winds in their favor, the Argonauts arrived in Colchis, where the sacred grove of Ares was located. After wandering around Colchis they soon came across a beautiful palace. Four fountains could be found in the courtyard, surrounded by vines and beautiful flowers. They were gushing water, milk, wine, and aromatic oils respectively. This was the home of king Aeetes, who was standing there next to his beautiful daughter Medea.
Jason had been debating over the past few days which strategy he should follow to obtain the shiny fleece. He believed in his powers and if he started a fight, he could win. However, all these days travelling around the world had taught him a lot. Success can be achieved with the power of persuasion. Violence is not always necessary to get what you want.
Jason came to Colchis in peace. He accompanied the four shipwrecked siblings to the palace and was hosted there by the king Aeetes himself. Meanwhile, goddess Athena and goddess Hera were plotting how to get princess Medea fall in love with Jason, which would eventually help the hero persuade the king of Colchis. They eventually got Eros, the Greek version of Cupid, to shoot the arrow of romantic love to Medea, who instantly developed feelings for the prince of Iolcos.
Jason knew that, in order to persuade someone, you need to gain their trust. He was a stranger in Aeetes eyes and it would take forever to make him like him. However, he ended up using one of his good deeds to his favor. It was revealed that the brothers he had saved were the king’s grandsons. The eldest of the young men started narrating how he and his brothers were going to die until Jason and his crew found them and rescued them. He then proceeded to tell the king that Jason has lost his throne in Iolcos and he needs to obtain the fleece and take his rightful place.
Although these words were coming from his grandson and not Jason himself, Aeetes became enraged. How could someone ask for the most precious item of his kingdom? Jason heard Aeetes and how he would punish him for his audacity to demand something like this. Jason stayed calm. He did not take things personally. Instead, he started complimenting Aeetes and telling him that he would be willing to pay a price for getting the fleece. Not only that, but Iolcos would be forever grateful to him. He would be known for his generosity in his kingdom and beyond.
Aeetes started thinking about his options. He could detect Jason’s efforts to persuade him but he didn’t feel like ordering his execution anymore. Instead, the king of Colchis promised him that he would offer him the fleece only if he completed a series of “impossible” tasks, just like the Hercule’s labors.
To begin with, Jason would have to yoke a pair of fire-breathing oxen and plow the field. Then, he would have to plant dragons’ teeth in the soil and fight off the skeletons that would sprout. The final task would be to destroy the mighty dragon that guarded the fleece. The king believed that Jason would reject the proposal but maintain his positive attitude towards him. It would a win-win situation.
Jason was indeed overwhelmed by all these tasks and, although he was a confident and brave individual, he was also reasonable. He knew that it would be impossible to complete these tasks. But given the circumstances and the fact that, without the fleece, he would be assassinated by Pelias, he accepted the challenge. What he did not know was that two goddesses were on his side and that Medea, the princess of Colchis, possessed magic abilities and was also madly in love with him.
The young woman spent the night with her maidens, gathering herbs and other items to prepare a charm that would protect Jason from harms way. She then approached him and told him that, if he agrees to marry her, she will give him a charm that would protect him from fire and bronze. Jason agreed and received Medea’s magic protection.
The prince of Iolcos and leader of the Argonauts appeared in front of Aeetes, the people of Colchis, and his crew members. They would all watch him try to complete the “impossible tasks”. Since only him and Medea knew about the charms, the audience was left in shock while watching him approach the first ox, which started breathing fire.
Jason was not harmed by the flames, since he was protected by Medea’s charm. He was able to plow the field with the help of these dangerous animals. He then planted the seeds that were given to him. These were not normal seeds; they were dragons’ teeth. All of a sudden, skeletons started digging themselves out of the soil, forming an army. Jason followed Medea’s instructions and threw a rock at the skeletons who got disoriented. The blind skeletons started fighting each other and Jason was standing there watching them destroy themselves.
Jason and The Dragon of Ares’ Sacred Grove
After Aeetes watched Jason completing the “impossible” tasks, he panicked. He could feel that Jason could destroy the dragon and run away with the golden fleece. Before the Argonauts could realize what was going on, Aeetes ordered his army to destroy Argo. Medea then did the unthinkable. This wouldn’t be the first time she would commit such an act, but you have to remember that she was blinded by Eros; her love for Jason was not healthy. She was obsessed with him and would do anything to help him.
Medea killed her brother to destruct her father from destroying Argo and stopping the Argonauts from escaping. At the same time, Jason run towards the sacred grove of Ares, threw Medea’s poisonous potion at the dragon, and stole the golden fleece. Other sources mention that Medea sang a lullaby to the dragon and put him to sleep; a concept that we have seen in the first Harry Potter book. Another variation of the myth wants Jason consumed alive by the dragon but managing to slice open the monster’s belly with the help of the princess of Colchis. Jason then run towards Argo with his crew members and escaped with Medea and his golden trophy.
Returning to Iolcos
Going back to Iolcos was not an easy task. The Argonauts had to avoid the Sirens, Circe, Scylla and Charybdis, just like Odysseus in Homer’s Odyssey. The Argonauts also faced Talos, a bronze robot-like guard of the island of Crete. Medea played a crucial role in helping the crew survive the trip. Without her magic spells and potions, fetching the fleece and going back to Iolcos would be a deadly task.
Unfortunately, Jason and Medea were not able to rule the city of Iolcos. Pelias refused to offer his throne and Medea did another atrocious act. She promised the daughters of Pelias that their father would get much younger and live much longer if they cooked him in a pot just like a lamb. Medea would use her magic herbs to revive him, which she never did. The couple was chased away from Iolcos and found refuge in Corinth. The tragedies never ended for them. However, the ending of the story is the topic of a tragedy, a theatrical play. Are you interested in a new series dedicated on Greek drama? Comment down below!
Theories & Conspiracy Theories About the Argonautica
There are many themes found in the Argonautica. The most obvious is that of power and how it can blind people and motivate them into doing the impossible possible. At the same time, we can see how humans are unwilling to give their powerful position to someone who is more capable than them. Sometimes, someone promised to give them power if they proved themselves. Have you ever worked for a company and gave your 100% to achieve the goals you were given, only to see yourself remain stagnant and not get compensated the way you were promised to get compensated? Then you know exactly how Jason felt when he returned to Iolcos with the golden fleece.
Another theme that is present in the Argonautica is that of the art of persuasion. Every ancient Greek hero has a set of qualities that make them stand out. They are all brave and strong, but this is not enough to move forward in life. Odysseus was witty and was able to trick others and get himself out of difficult situations. We saw that when he got Cyclops Polyphemus drank and when he came up with the idea of the Trojan horse. Jason appears to be a person who chooses his battles. He knows that violence can be unnecessary sometimes and that you can get yourself out of difficult situations by complimenting others and being diplomatic. Of course, nothing would be possible if Medea hadn’t fallen in love with him, proving that the greatest charm you can cast on someone is make them fall for you. Once Eros shoots his arrows, you have the person under your control.
Apart from the theories regarding the meaning of the Argonautica, there are plenty of conspiracy theories that suggest that Jason was a historical figure and that Argo was not a regular ship but rather a spaceship. Others say that the golden fleece actually represents sea silk and that the Argonauts were the first ones to cross an ancient silk road to modern day Georgia. There is not enough proof to validate these theories, however it is worth taking them into consideration. Have you ever heard of any of these theories? If yes, do you believe in them?
Zeus is perhaps the most well-known Greek god of Mount Olympus. Apart from his leading role in several Greek myths, he has also been featured in countless contemporary books and films. Here are seven facts you should know about Zeus.
Most of us know vampires from Hollywood and, of course, the 19th Century Gothic horror novel “Dracula” by Bram Stoker. They are blood-thirsty people (or creatures) of the night. They are called “the undead” and they are still very feared in the Balkans and in Eastern Europe. Vampires are often depicted as being pale, aristocratic, and charming. Sometimes, they resemble frightening monsters. They always seek blood but, in certain occasions, they consume people’s energy and are therefore called energy vampires. All of them fear the sunlight, garlic, and certain metals. +What if I told you that ancient Greeks believed in vampires as well?
The Modern Greek “Vrykolakas”
The modern Greek vampire is called “vrykolakas”. A vrykolakas is an undead creature that resembles a zombie (at least in the way they are portrayed in Hollywood movies). They drink blood but they have cravings for flesh as well. According to legend, these supernatural beings were once humans. These people either got excommunicated by the Orthodox Church or followed a sinful lifestyle. After their death, they turn into horrific creatures that leave their tombs at night and scare or even hunt the living.
The fear of the vrykolakas spread among Greeks when the latter encountered some Slavic groups in the Balkan region. In fact, as many of you might already know, vampires are very popular among the Slavs. In Greece, the fear of the vrykolakas soon faded away and most Greeks are aware of vampires thanks to Stoker’s “Dracula”. What most people do not know is that stories of vampire-like creatures are way older than the Irish writer’s book and the 17th-century folklore.
This belief seemed to have led some ancient Greek cities to take protective measures when burying their dead. Neolithic graves discovered in Choirokoitia in Cyprus indicate that people were trying to stop the dead from exiting their graves. They would place rocks on the dead bodies’ chests, making sure that they would not escape during the night. Similar burial sites were found in other places across Greece.
Apart from these findings, ancient Greek mythology includes many stories of undead creatures that targeted people – especially at night. Empusa and Lamia were two vampiric monsters in ancient Greek folklore. Their origins are not clear; some believed they were the angry ghosts of two dead women, while other said that they were demons.
Embusa and Lamia would take the forms of beautiful women to attract young, energetic men who wandered alone at night. With their charming beauty, they would lure them into dark alleys and fields. There, they would attack these men, drinking their blood and sometimes eating their flesh.
A similar legend is the one of Mormolyceia or Mormo. A female ghost who targeted babies and young children instead. During the Byzantine times, Mormo and Lamia were considered to be the same supernatural being. In fact, it is believed that the original story of Lamia described her as a ghost that targeted infants.
According to the legend, Lamia was a Libyan queen who (unsurprisingly) became Zeus’ lover. Hera, Zeus’ sister and wife, started to harass the woman by abducting and killing her children as soon as they were born. Lamia became so enraged that started targeting other people’s babies. Ancient Greek women would often mention Lamia when their children were misbehaving to make sure that they don’t sneak out of their beds at night. Similar stories were told in other ancient communities around the globe.
When looking for the evilest ancient Greek god or goddess, usually three come to mind: Pluton/Hades, Pan, and Hecate. But what if I told you that there is another divine being that shares more characteristics with the devil, than the previous three: Eris.
One of the most well-known ancient Greek myths is the one of Daedalus and Icarus. You might remember these two as the architects who designed the labyrinth, the huge maze that was the home of the Minotaur in Crete.
Like Persephone, who was the queen of the underworld, Hecate, a daughter of two Titans, was considered a chthonic divinity; meaning that she spent most of her time under the surface of the Earth. She is often depicted holding a torch and a key. That is because she was able to unlock the gates between different realms – allowing people to communicate with the souls of the dead and supernatural beings from different realities.
Hecate as a Goddess of Necromancy
Due to her ability to create portals and points of connections between different realms, Hecate was considered to be the goddess of Necromancy. Necromancy is the practice of communicating with the dead to reveal secrets about the past, the present, and the future. This was a common practice in ancient Greece; visiting oracles for guidance was generally accepted and Hecate was a well-perceived and respected goddess. The ancient “mediums” would communicate not only with the spirits of the dead but also with the gods to receive information that would be taken into consideration for important strategic decisions.
Since necromancy is associated with ghosts, the souls of the dead, Hecate was also the goddess of ghosts. Ghosts in ancient Greek were neither bad nor good. Sometimes they helped people make important decisions with prophecies, other times they would cause panic. And the most popular evil ghost of ancient times was Taraxippus – the ghost often caused panic to horses during horse races and battles. The ghosts were also blood-thirsty, similar to vampires, and if someone needed to consult them, sacrificing an animal was usually required.
Hecate as a Goddess of Witchcraft and Witches
Hecate was also the goddess of witches, witchcraft, and magic. She had a familiar which was a dog and not a cat! The goddess was nocturnal and knew a lot about herbs. She was therefore able to craft potions and medicines. Dandelion, garlic, and lavender are some of the herbs that are associated with her. She is believed to give blessings to witches by offering her knowledge and rumor has it that she lurks in crossroads. Even today, crossroads in Greece are believed to be places that are favored by witches.
Hecate had many followers in ancient Greece and her shrines were often placed at a home’s doorway or at public crossroads. In ancient Athens, a pillar dedicated to the goddess was located in a crossroad that led to the Acropolis, the sacred rock of Athens. Sanctuaries of the goddess were found in the town of Lagina, in Argolis, on the island of Aigina and many other places. In the island of Samothrace, people would often use a ritual that involved Hecate that was believed to protect them from storms and other terrors. The rituals unfortunately involved the sacrifice of dogs.
Deipnon in Greek means dinner. Every new moon, Ancient Athenians would honor Hecate and the souls of the dead by serving an additional meal for her. Hecate’s deipnon was also used as a method of purification of the house – a way to appease any angry ghosts that were roaming the house.
Ancient Greek Witchcraft, Curses, and Spells
Archaeological findings have shown that ancient Greeks often practiced witchcraft and cast spells/curses to win a battle, attract a love interest, make money, and generally succeed in life. The process involved writing spells or curses on tablets and/or use figurines that could be compared to voodoo dolls. These objects would be thrown into the graves of those who had recently passed-away.
The ancient Greeks believed that the souls of the dead were messengers between different realms – the ones who recently died would carry these messages with them to the underworld and then Pluto, Persephone, Hecate or any other chthonic divinity would use their powers in favor of the spell caster. It is not clear whether the latter would have to pay a “price” for the “service”.
A great example would be the discovery of 30 curse tablets in a well in the ancient Greek cemetery of Kerameikos. The people who cast the curses were asking for the help of various chthonic gods and goddesses. You can find images here (the text is in Greek). Although witchcraft was generally accepted, “black” magic and casting curses were not only considered unethical, but also illegal. However, in ancient Athens, there was one exception: before a battle, all Athenians would be invited for a public curse session against the enemy (source also in Greek).