Learn Greek While Doing Chores A1-C2 | Parallel Audio Language Learning

Γεια σε όλους, hello everyone. These videos will help you learn some basic Greek words and phrases while you clean or organize your house, paint, do arts and crafts, or travel from one destination to another. You don’t need to be in front of the screen or take notes. These videos use parallel audio to help you passively memorize important words and phrases while doing chores or anything that does not require your immediate attention. Feel free to repeat the words after me, while multitasking. Let’s get started.

Greek Parallel Audio:

Greek Drama Ep.6: The Concepts of Hybris, Nemesis, and Catharsis

Hybris, nemesis, and catharsis are three important aspects of every ancient Greek tragedy. Hybris and nemesis were mentioned way before the birth of Greek theatre; we know the terms from ancient Greek mythology. And catharsis is a concept that was introduced in drama. But what is the meaning of these three theatrical terms?

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Hybris and Ancient Greek Drama | Pride and Injustice

The English word “hybris” derives from the Greek «ὕβρις». In modern Greek, the term is used in a way that can be translated as “insult” or “curse word”. But in ancient Greek, the term refers to an insult which was targeted towards gods and goddesses, rather than other humans. But how could a mortal offend a god or a goddess?

The easiest way an ancient Greek could manage to commit hybris, was by being excessively proud and overconfident. This is why the English word “hybris” is often translated as “excess pride”. Odysseus, for example, committed hybris when he started mocking Cyclops Polyphemous, after managing to blind him. Blinding him was an act of self-defense – it was the only way he could escape the island. But repeatedly making fun of him was unnecessary. Odysseus insulted Poseidon in this way, and the god of the sea punished him for his arrogance.

In ancient Greek theatre, the concept of hybris still revolved around excess pride and overconfidence but it also included other negative traits and actions. The gods and goddesses in ancient drama were presented as more sensitive and caring than in ancient Greek mythology. They also cared for the injustices towards humans.

For example, the tragedies of Oedipus and Antigone root back to an hybris that was committed by a human towards another human. Oedipus’ father had attacked a young boy, which enraged the gods. The entire family got stuck into a series of tragedies. In Antigone, the ruler Creon enrages the gods for being both arrogant and being cruel towards Antigone and her deceased brother, Polynices. Therefore, “hybris”, in the context of drama, can also be translated as “injustice”, “outrage”, or “immoral act”.

The necessity of hybris in ancient tragedy is therefore obvious. Tragic events would not be possible without an act of hybris. Hybris – either in the form of arrogance and pride or in the form of injustice- is the usual cause of every single tragedy. And from the stories that ancient tragedians narrated on stage, we can assume that pride and injustice are often connected – with acts of injustice being the result of excess pride. In other words, an arrogant and proud person is more likely to be unjust and, as a result, insult the gods and goddesses.

 

Learn Greek at Home During Quarantine

If you are interested in learning Greek but there are no classes taking place in your area, don’t be discouraged. Helinika, a platform dedicated to the Greek language, history, and culture, offers affordable Greek language lessons online. Learn Greek during Quarantine.

Nemesis and Ancient Greek Drama | Divine Punishment

Nemesis is the result of hybris. It derives from the Greek word «νέμεσις» that can be translated as “delivering justice”. That meant bringing good fortune to the virtuous and bad fortune to immoral people. Similar to the concept of karma. But, because the term “nemesis” was used predominantly in tragedies, the negative aspect persisted. “Nemesis” today is translated as “punishment” or “bad karma”.

It is important to note that the concept of nemesis has been personified. Goddess Nemesis, also called Rhamnousia, has been mentioned in many ancient texts, including Hesiod’s “Theogony”. She is the goddess who punishes the ones who commit hubris.

Just like hybris, nemesis is an important part of every ancient Greek tragedy. Without it, the tragic characters will never face their problems or deal with their inner demons. Nemesis – divine punishment- leads us to the final and most important concept of ancient Greek drama: catharsis.

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Catharsis and Ancient Greek Drama | Emotional Cleansing

Hybris and nemesis were two concepts that were present in ancient Greek myths. A hero or heroine would be blinded by his or her pride and they would be punished for it with a long period of bad luck. But ancient Greek theatre was born at a time when ancient Athenians were rethinking their old values and tried to construct a more sensitive and humanitarian society. Ancient Greek drama does not stop at nemesis. Punishment for the shake of punishment is too cruel. Instead, punishment should be a learning lesson for the person who receives it and anyone who witnesses it.

Catharsis is tragedy’s ultimate goal. The term derives from the Greek «κάθαρσις», which means “cleanse”. But it is mostly known for its metaphorical meaning – the “spiritual or emotional cleanse” that can be achieved through art. Catharsis is the reason why rich Athenians paid for the tickets of the financially struggling citizens. Every Athenian had to participate to “cleanse” their soul and be better citizens.

The term is attributed to Aristotle who used the metaphor of soul cleansing in his work “Poetics”. In tragedy, catharsis is experienced by both the play’s characters and the audience. The tragic characters who commit hybris and then receive nemesis, “cleanse” their mind and heart from all the negative emotions that led them to make unjust decisions or actions.

In Antigone, the tyrannical ruler of Thebes, Creon, sees the body of his diseased son and immediately regrets all his past decisions. The audience leaves knowing that, from now on, he will be an empathetic and caring leader. Having experienced tragedy, he will be able to get in other people’s shoes.

At the same time, the members of the audience of a tragic play can leave the theatre feeling “lighter”. They experienced intense negative emotions while watching the tragic characters’ misfortunes but, in the end, something positive comes out of it. Theatre acts as a form of psychotherapy. The viewers can resurface their suppressed emotions – jealousy, fear, regret, anger- and let them go. They exit the theatre with their emotions purified. And that is what catharsis is.

Greek Drama Ep.5: Antigone by Sophocles

Antigone by Sophocles is one of the most well-known ancient Greek theatrical plays. It belongs to a collection of tragedies – the Theban plays – since it takes place in the Greek city of Thebes. It was written by the great tragedian Sophocles and was presented at the theatrical competition of Dionysia in 441 BC. It is based on the myth of Oedipus but Sophocles manages to make the story even more tragic. It focuses on the subject of written vs. unwritten rules and absolute power.

Greek Drama Ep.4: Helen by Euripides

In 412 BC, the ancient Greek tragedian Euripides presented a trilogy of plays at the annual theatrical competition of Dionysia in Athens. One of those plays was Helen – inspired by the legend of Helen of Troy.

6 Random Things Greek People Do | Greek Culture Facts

Are you looking for some Greek culture facts? Today, we present to you six (6) random things Greek people do. From adding oregano on everything to saying one thing and meaning another, here are the most random facts about Greece and the Greeks.

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Random Things Only Greeks Do:

  1. Employees for Pumping Gas
  2. No Self-Service
  3. Enjoying a Glass of Plain Water
  4. Pedestrian Lanes= Decoration?
  5. Oregano on Everything
  6. Indirect Communication

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Greek Listening #18: Greek News and Journalistic Phrases Challenge | Greek Comprehension

Journalists use specific words and phrases to share a news story, address an issue, or express an opinion. These words and phrases might surprise non-native speakers. Here are some Greek journalistic words and phrases to write down in your vocabulary notebook.

The text:

Γεια σας! Σήμερα θα σας βοηθήσω να κατανοήσετε ορισμένες φράσεις που χρησιμοποιούν οι δημοσιογράφοι όταν συντάσσουν άρθρα, εκφωνούν ραδιοφωνικές εκπομπές, ή λένε τις ειδήσεις στην τηλεόραση. Αυτό που ονομάζουμε «δημοσιογραφικός λόγος» ή καλύτερα «δημοσιογραφικά κλισέ». Και αυτό γιατί, εάν είστε σε θέση να παρακολουθήσετε τα βίντεό μου, μπορείτε να ενημερώνεστε και στα ελληνικά, διαβάζοντας άρθρα, ακούγοντας ραδιόφωνο, και βλέποντας τηλεόραση.

Για να κρατήσω την προσοχή σας και να εμπεδώσετε καλύτερα αυτά που έχω να πω, θα κάνουμε μια διαδραστική άσκηση. Ας περάσουμε όμως πρώτα στην καρτέλα λέξεων.

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Καρτέλα Λέξεων:

(η) δημοσιογραφία= journalism

(ο/η) δημοσιογράφος= (the) male/female journalist

(το) γεγονός= (the) event/ incident/ happening

(τα) γεγονότα*= (the) current affairs/ news

(η) επικαιρότητα= (the) current affairs

(η) είδηση= (the) story (featured in the news)

(οι) ειδήσεις= (the) news

(το) δελτίο (ειδήσεων)= (the) news report

(ο/η) εκφωνητής-τρια ειδήσεων= (the) tv/radio news presenter

(ο/η) παρουσιαστής/τρια ειδήσεων= (the) tv news presenter

(το) πρόγραμμα= (the) schedule/ program

(το) τηλεοπτικό πρόγραμμα= (the) tv program/ schedule

(το) ραδιοφωνικό πρόγραμμα= (the) radio program/ schedule

(το) ραδιοτηλεοπτικό πρόγραμμα= (the) tv and radio program/ schedule

(η) εφημερίδα= (the) newspaper

(το) περιοδικό= the magazine

(το) μαγκαζίνο= (the) radio/tv program which covers various topics**

(το) άρθρο= (the) (news) article

(ο) αρθρογράφος= (the) editor

(η) ενημερωτική ιστοσελίδα= (the) news website

(o/η) ανταποκριτής-τρια= (the) reporter/ legman

(το) ρεπορτάζ***= (the) news report/ story (usually longform)

*(το) γεγονός in plural

** (το) μαγκαζίνο is not a magazine (borrowed from Italian)

***borrowed from French

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Η Άσκηση:

Στα ελληνικά, υπάρχουν δύο λέξεις που μεταφράζονται στα αγγλικά ως “fire”: (η) φωτιά, (η) πυρκαγιά. Πώς αλλιώς περιγράφουν οι δημοσιογράφοι μια φωτιά που έχει ξεσπάσει; Οι σωστές απαντήσεις είναι δύο (2).

Α) Πύρινη λαίλαπα

Β) Κόλαση επί Γης

Γ) Καυτό κύμα

Δ) Πύρινη Κόλαση

Οι σωστές απαντήσεις είναι δύο: Α και Δ – «πύρινη λαίλαπα» και «πύρινη κόλαση».

Πώς αποκαλούν συχνά οι δημοσιογράφοι μια μητέρα που αφαιρεί την ζωή των παιδιών της; Το όνομα προέρχεται από την ελληνική μυθολογία.

Η απάντηση είναι «σύγχρονη Μήδεια».

Εάν υπάρξουν νέα στοιχεία για μια παλιά υπόθεση, οι δημοσιογράφοι λένε ότι έχουμε… μπορείτε να μαντέψετε;

… «ραγδαίες εξελίξεις».

Πώς γράφουν οι αρθρογράφοι έναν κακοποιητικό πατέρα – έναν δηλαδή κακό πατέρα;

Τον αποκαλούν «Πα-Τέρα» (τέρας σημαίνει “monster”).

Κι αν μια γυναίκα ευθύνεται για τον θάνατο του συζύγου της, την αποκαλούν:

Α) Σαλώμη

Β) Μαύρη χήρα

Γ) Γυναίκα αράχνη

Δ) Εύα

Η σωστή απάντηση είναι Β και Γ: «μαύρη χήρα» ή «γυναίκα αράχνη».

Εάν πάλι γίνει κάποιος σεισμός, τότε μπορείτε να φανταστείτε ποιες φράσεις χρησιμοποιούν οι δημοσιογράφοι;

Α) το χτύπημα του εγκέλαδου

Β) χορέψαμε στους ρυθμούς των Ρίχτερ

Γ) εικόνες αποκάλυψης

Δ) βιβλική καταστροφή

Η απάντηση είναι πως… χρησιμοποιούν όλες τις φράσεις (Α, Β, Γ, Δ)

Όπως είδατε, τα δημοσιογραφικά κλισέ είναι πολλά. Τώρα, μην ξεχνάτε ότι μια πολύ καλή μέθοδος εξάσκησης είναι η παρακολούθηση των ειδήσεων στα ελληνικά. Θα δείτε μεγάλη βελτίωση εάν αφιερώνετε πέντε λεπτά την ημέρα διαβάζοντας, ακούγοντας, ή παρακολουθώντας την επικαιρότητα. Να έχετε μια όμορφη μέρα!

Greek Drama Ep.5: Antigone by Sophocles

Antigone by Sophocles is one of the most well-known ancient Greek theatrical plays. It belongs to a collection of tragedies – the Theban plays – since it takes place in the Greek city of Thebes. It was written by the great tragedian Sophocles and was presented at the theatrical competition of Dionysia in 441 BC. It is based on the myth of Oedipus but Sophocles manages to make the story even more tragic. It focuses on the subject of written vs. unwritten rules and absolute power.

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Main Characters in Antigone

The main characters of Antigone by Sophocles are Antigone (daughter of Oedipus), Ismene (Antigone’s sister), Creon (Antigone’s uncle), Haemon (Antigone’s fiancée), Eurydice (Creon’s wife), Tiresias (the prophet), and the Chorus that consists of a group of elderly men.

Antigone: Summary of the Plot

The play begins with the sisters Antigone and Ismene meeting outside of the palace of Thebes. The two young women are the daughters of the mythical king of Thebes Oedipus and his mother, Iocaste. But what do we know about this family from ancient Greek mythology?

Antigone’s Background

Oedipus and Iocaste married each other without knowing that they are mother and son. This unorthodox marriage was their punishment from the gods for the serious hybris the father of the family had committed. Laius, father of Oedipus and first husband of Iocaste, had abused a young boy, which enraged the gods and goddesses. Since then, countless misfortunes and tragedies hit the family.

The royal family of Thebes could be compared to the cursed families we often talk about today, such as the Kennedys. Some of these misfortunes resulted by their own despicable actions. For example, Oedipus was once so enraged by his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, that he cursed them. He said that they would kill each other one day – which came true after Oedipus’ self-exile.

Eteocles and Polynices fought over the throne of Thebes, after their father left the city-state in a state of shock. He had just learned that he is related to his wife. Polynices then decided to also leave Thebes and go to the city of Argos. There, he married the princess of Argos and ordered the local army to attack his hometown. He wanted to punish his brother and take over the city. Both Eteocles and Polynices died during the battle.

The throne was then overtaken by their uncle, Creon. Creon immediately turned into a tyrant. He wanted to make clear that he wouldn’t allow anyone to overthrow him or question his power. He honored Eteocles for trying to protect Thebes and shamed Polynices publicly for turning against his hometown. He refused to offer a burial ceremony for him and left his body laying on the battleground. Citizens of Thebes were not allowed to touch it. And this is the exact timeline of Antigone’s storyline.

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Main Storyline: Antigone

Antigone and Ismene were the sisters of Polynices and Eteocles. Antigone, the eldest and most rebellious sister, tries to conspire against Creon and bury Polynices. Burying the dead following the rites of the time was an unwritten rule that, according to Antigone, was more important than the rule Creon came up with. Ismene is skeptical. She does want to honor her brother, but she doesn’t want to defy the state either.

“I will not urge thee,-no nor, if thou yet shouldst have the mind, wouldst thou be welcome as a worker with me. Nay, be what thou wilt; but I will bury him: well for me to die in doing that. I shall rest, a loved one with him whom I have loved, sinless in my crime; for I owe a longer allegiance to the dead than to the living: in that world I shall abide forever. But if thou wilt, be guilty of dishonoring laws which the gods have stablished in honor.”, Antigone says.

The two women leave the stage and the Chorus, consisting of elder men, starts narrating the events before the death of Polynices and Eteocles. How Polynices left Thebes and managed to influence the ruler of Argos to attack his hometown.

Then, Creon enters the scene and converses with the Chorus. Is he in the wrong? The elders of Thebes reassure him that he has the power to make decisions for the living and the dead of Thebes. But everything changes when a guard who was supposed to monitor the battleground, enters the scene to announce that the body has been buried.

“Well, this is it.-The corpse-some one hath just given it burial, and gone away,-after sprinkling thirsty dust on the flesh, with such other rites as piety enjoins.”, the guard says.

Creon leaves the stage frantically and the Chorus starts highlighting the importance of laws and state power.

Antigone’s Punishment

Creon comes back on stage, along with Antigone. The young woman confesses to the crime, saying that the law of god was more important to her than the law of the state ruler.

“Yes; for it was not Zeus that had published me that edict; not such are the laws set among men by the justice who dwells with the gods below; nor deemed I that thy decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten and unfailing statutes of heaven. For their life is not of to-day or yesterday, but from all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth.”, she says.

Creon orders the arrest of Antigone and Ismene. He speculates that the younger sister knew about her sister’s actions but did nothing to alert him nor the guards. Then, another character enters the scene. A young man named Haemon. He is the son of Creon and fiancée of Antigone. He tries to persuade his father to spare the two women, but a fight ensued. Haemon leaves and the Chorus starts talking about the power of love and compares Antigone to Niobe, whose children were killed and were not given a proper burial after an act of hybris.

Creon then decides to free Ismene and punish Antigone by burying her into a cave. The young woman is led into her eternal prison, while mourning her youth and the wedding she was planning all this time.

“Tomb, bridal-chamber, eternal prison in the caverned rock, whither go to find mine own, those many who have perished, and whom Persephone hath received among the dead! Last of all shall I pass thither, and far most miserably of all, before the term of my life is spent. (…)”

Creon’s Punishment

Once Antigone is led and abandoned into the cave, a prophet named Teiresias enters the scene. He warns Creon of the hybris he is about to commit: leaving the dead unburied and burying the living. Not only that, but everyone in Greece will despise the ruler of Thebes. The Chorus asks Creon to listen to prophet Teiresias but he leaves angrily.

What follows is the discovery of Antigone’s body in the cave. She ended her own life. Haemon, just like Romeo, then stabbed himself, ending his own life. Once Creon’s wife and Haemon’s mother hears the news, she proceeds to do the same. The play ends with Creon holding the body of his son, acknowledging his mistakes.

“Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness; and reverence towards the gods must be inviolate. Great words of prideful men are ever punished with great blows, and, in old age, teach the chastened to be wise.”, the leader of the Chorus concludes.

Antigone in a Nutshell:

  • “Antigone” is a tragedy that was first presented by Sophocles in 441 BC.
  • The play is set in Thebes, Greece.
  • Antigone, daughter of Oedipus, is the main heroine.
  • She defies the written laws of the state and follows the unwritten laws of the gods.
  • Creon, her uncle and ruler of Thebes, commits hybris by punishing Antigone – he ends up being punished by fate.
  • “Catharsis” is achieved when Creon sees the consequences of his actions and acknowledges his mistakes.

Main Theme in Antigone: Written vs Unwritten Rules

Just like in most ancient Greek tragedies, the main theme of Antigone is hybris – the consequences of pride, arrogance, and overconfidence. Creon, the ruler of Thebes, treated the death of Polynices with a lack of compassion. He needed to reestablish order after the battle with Argos, but he got blinded by the absolute power. Yes, Polynices betrayed his city-state, but Creon decided to continue his punishment, after his death. He came up with an inflexible and strict rule and then punished Antigone for disobeying him. He didn’t listen to anyone who tried to warn him – not even prophet Teiresias.

Another theme in Antigone that differentiates it from other plays, is about status quo, moral/ divine law versus human law. Antigone is an archetypical rebel: a young, fearless female against a powerful older male. Antigone chose the unwritten rules over the rules of the state. She even ends up sacrificing her own life for her beliefs.

Were her actions worth it? Could there be another solution to this problem, such as debating with Creon? Did Creon turn into a tyrant before or after the rebellious act? How is a tyrant born? And what if everyone started disobeying the law to follow their moral standards? These are the questions that viewers are called to answer after watching the play. Feel free to share your opinions in the comment section.  

Greek YouTube Channels to Immerse Yourself in The Language

There are different YouTube channels dedicated to the Greek language and culture, such as Helinika. Two examples are LinguaTree and EasyGreek. Here are some of the best Greek YouTube channels that are not targeted at Greek language learners. They are commentary, comedy, lifestyle, and other types of channels, which can help you immerse yourself in the language.

 If you are an absolute beginner, you might find it hard following their videos. But if you have a basic understanding of the Greek language, watching the content these channels produce will significantly improve your fluency.  

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Greek Comedy Channels

Most of the Greek comedy YouTube channels belong to actors and real comedians, rather than professional YouTubers. Here are Helinika’s recommendations:

Labros Fisfis

The comedian Labros Fisfis has a nerdy, self-deprecating sense of humor that can be enjoyed by an international audience. At the same time, you will learn about certain aspects of the Greek culture that even we, Greeks, make jokes about. It is recommended to watch his videos on Greek motherhood and Greece in general.

Giorgos Vagiatas

Giorgos Vagiatas is a personal favorite, since he is gifted with making everything sound funny. His sense of humor could also be described as nerdy and foreigners will also find many Greek “inside jokes” that will help them understand more about the Greek culture. Vagiatas is also uploading travel content from time to time and he is known for his “camper” traveling series here on YouTube.

Dionysis Atzarakis

Dionysis Atzarakis is a very talented actor, director and comedian, with a very sophisticated sense of humor. No loud noises, weird face expressions, or try-hard jokes. Just pure sarcasm and irony. His jokes might be harder to understand, since he adds many references to Greece’s pop culture and media.

Greek Scientific & Informative YouTube Channels

The Greek YouTube community includes many scientists and knowledgeable people.

Astronio

Astronio is a YouTube channel dedicated to the science of Astronomy. It explains complicated phenomena of the cosmos in an easy and understandable way. Behind the channel there is a real astronomer named Pavlos Kastanas, who is also a science lecturer at Mediterranean College. You can also find interviews of other scientists on this channel.

Kathimerini Physiki

 Kathimerini Physiki (Καθημερινή Φυσική) translates to “Daily Physics”. It is a Greek YouTube channel that explains scientific phenomena to a broad audience. The face of the presenter is not shown on screen.

The Skeptic Theory

A very interesting Greek YouTube channel is “The Skeptic Theory”, which covers a wide range of topics – from religion and conspiracy theories to human psychology, ethics, and logic. The face of the presenter is again not shown and viewers who are currently in the process of learning Greek will be able to expand their vocabulary.

Yannis Sarakatsanis

Yannis Sarakatsanis is a mathematician and actor here in Greece who uploads high quality content on YouTube. His videos on various philosophical matters are very well researched and he also gives great book recommendations.

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Greek Commentary Channels

Commentary channels can get controversial. Here are two commentary channels that belong to independent thinkers and do not necessarily fall under a specific political ideology.

Konstantina Adamaki

Konstantina Adamaki is a Journalism graduate who creates mostly commentary videos but also some satirical videos. By watching her videos, you will get an understanding of Greece’s current affairs. The YouTuber has been called a “leftist” and a “conservative” by commentators, since her opinions do not follow a specific political agenda.

Nefeli Meg

Nefeli Meg is a young lawyer who posts informative and entertaining content. She usually comments on Greece’s current affairs and, as a lawyer, she is able to present both sides of the story. It is as if she debates with herself, which requires a lot of research. Both native and non-native speakers should watch her videos, since they can improve their Greek vocabulary.

Greek Lifestyle Channels

There are several Greek lifestyle YouTube channels but here are the ones recommended by Helinika.

Evelina Nikoliza

Evelina Nikoliza is a singer and presenter who also shares parts of her life on YouTube. She has a great sense of humor and she has some of the most hilarious storytime videos. Greek language learners will easily follow her stories.

I Mikri Ollandeza

Danae Georganta is a half-Dutch – half-Greek YouTuber who is known as “I Mikri Ollandeza” (the little Dutch girl). She was one of the first people who made YouTube their career in Greece. Danae started with beauty and fashion videos but, at the moment, she mostly uploads vlog and lifestyle content.

By exploring these YouTube channels you will probably come across other Greek creators, whose content will be interesting to you. If you watch any of their videos, feel free to leave a comment, letting them know how you discovered them. Have a nice day and keep learning!

This Is Your Sign for Learning Greek

You have been debating whether you should start learning modern Greek and you constantly postpone it. Whatever the reason might be, here is the sign you were looking for. Start learning Greek today.

Greek Verb “To Do” Conjugation (Κάνω, Έκανα, Θα Κάνω)

The Greek verb “to do” is the verb «κάνω». «Κάνω» has only one future for (θα κάνω) and one past form (έκανα). Here is the conjugation of the Greek verb «κάνω» (to do).

Examples:

“Η Ευδοκία κάνει γυμναστική κάθε πρωί.”

Eudokia exercises every morning.

“Ο Μενέλαος έκανε πολύ καλή δουλειά.”

Menelaus did a really good job.

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Greek Verb “Κάνω” (to Do) in all the Greek Tenses

Ενεστώτας: Κάνω (Present)

εγώ κάνω

εσύ κάνεις

αυτός-η-ο κάνει

εμείς κάνουμε

εσείς κάνετε

αυτοί-ές-ά κάνουν

Αόριστος/ Παρατατικός: Έκανα (Past)

εγώ έκανα

εσύ έκανες

αυτός-η-ο έκανε

εμείς κάναμε

εσείς κάνατε

αυτοί-ές-ά έκαναν

Μέλλοντας (Στιγμιαίος/ Εξακολουθητικός: Θα Κάνω (Future)

εγώ θα κάνω

εσύ θα κάνεις

αυτός-η-ο θα κάνει

εμείς θα κάνουμε

εσείς θα κάνετε

αυτοί-ές-ά θα κάνουν

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Παρακείμενος: Έχω Κάνει (Present Perfect)

εγώ έχω κάνει

εσύ έχεις κάνει

αυτός-η-ο έχει κάνει

εμείς έχουμε κάνει

εσείς έχετε κάνει

αυτοί-ές-ά έχουν κάνει

Υπερσυντέλικος: Είχα Κάνει (Past Perfect)

εγώ είχα κάνει

εσύ είχες κάνει

αυτός-η-ο είχε κάνει

εμείς είχαμε κάνει

εσείς είχατε κάνει

αυτοί-ές-ά είχαν κάνει

Μέλλοντας Συντελεσμένος: Θα Έχω Κάνει (Future Perfect)

εγώ θα έχω κάνει

εσύ θα έχεις κάνει

αυτός-η-ο θα έχει κάνει

εμείς θα έχουμε κάνει

εσείς θα έχετε κάνει

αυτοί-ές-ά θα έχουν κάνει

Greek Listening #17: Greek Job Search Vocabulary Challenge | Greek Comprehension

Helinika’s Greek listening exercise #17 will help you expand your Greek career and job search vocabulary. With the help of the story of a young Greek college graduate named Alexandros. Can you respond to the questions correctly?

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Read the script:

Γεια σας! Σήμερα θα κάνουμε κάτι διαφορετικό. Θα αφηγηθώ μια ιστορία χωρίς υπότιτλους και θα κληθείτε να απαντήσετε σε ορισμένες ερωτήσεις. Η ιστορία σχετίζεται με την αναζήτηση και εύρεση εργασίας – δουλειάς δηλαδή. Έτσι θα προσθέσετε περισσότερες λέξεις στο λεξιλόγιό σας που σχετίζονται με τον εργασιακό χώρο.

Καρτέλα λέξεων:

(η) δουλειά= (the) job

(η) εργασία= (the) work

(το) βιογραφικό (σημείωμα)= (the) resume/ CV

(η) συνοδευτική επιστολή= (the) cover letter

(ο/η) εργοδότης-τρια= (the) employer

(ο/η) υπάλληλος= (the) employee

(ο/η) υποψήφιος-α= (the) candidate

(η) συνέντευξη= (the) interview

(η) αγγελία= (the) posting/ ad

(η) προϋπηρεσία= (the) previous job experience

(η) εμπειρία= (the) experience

(η) πλήρης απασχόληση= (the) full-time job

(η) μερική απασχόληση= (the) part-time job

(η) μαθητεία/ (η) πρακτική (άσκηση)= (the) internship

*Δεν χρειάζεται να γνωρίζετε όλες τις λέξεις που θα ακούσετε παρακάτω. Σημασία έχει να «πιάσετε» το νόημα.

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Η ιστορία:

Ο Αλέξανδρος πρόσφατα αποφοίτησε από το Πανεπιστήμιο. Ολοκλήρωσε τις σπουδές του στον τομέα της Πληροφορικής. Ασχολείται δηλαδή με τους υπολογιστές – με τα κομπιούτερ που λένε κάποιοι. Ο πατέρας του Αλέξανδρου αγόρασε μια εφημερίδα για να τον βοηθήσει με την εύρεση εργασίας.

Όμως, ο Αλέξανδρος είχε ήδη αρχίσει να αναζητά αγγελίες εργασίας στο διαδίκτυο – στο Ίντερνετ δηλαδή. Και εκεί βρήκε μια αγγελία που του τράβηξε το ενδιαφέρον. «Ζητούνται Πτυχιούχοι Πληροφορικής για Οχτάωρη Εργασία σε Νεοσύστατη Επιχείρηση».

Ο Αλέξανδρος διάβασε με προσοχή το περιεχόμενο της αγγελίας. Ο εργοδότης δεν ζητεί προϋπηρεσία, όμως ο Αλέξανδρος είχε την τύχη να εργαστεί για τρεις μήνες σε μια εταιρεία ηλεκτρονικών παιχνιδιών στην πόλη όπου σπούδαζε. Εκεί έκανε την πρακτική του. Ήταν Διαχειριστής Συστημάτων Πληροφόρησης. Δηλαδή, είχε την ευθύνη για την ασφαλή και αποτελεσματική λειτουργία των συστημάτων ηλεκτρονικών υπολογιστών. Η αγγελία περιέγραφε έναν παρόμοιο ρόλο.

Ο Αλέξανδρος άρχισε να συμπληρώνει το βιογραφικό του σημείωμα με την βοήθεια ενός προγράμματος στον υπολογιστή του. Συμπλήρωσε τα στοιχεία επικοινωνίας του, όπως την διεύθυνση ηλεκτρονικού ταχυδρομείου (το e-mail του δηλαδή) και τον αριθμό τηλεφώνου του. Το κινητό του φυσικά, καθώς το έχει πάντα μαζί του. Έπειτα, πρόσθεσε τις σπουδές του και την σύντομη -μικρή δηλαδή- εργασιακή του εμπειρία.

Έπειτα, ο Αλέξανδρος έγραψε μια συνοδευτική επιστολή – ένα γράμμα που θα έστελνε στον εργοδότη μαζί με το βιογραφικό του. Ο πατέρας του Αλέξανδρου του πρότεινε να αρχίσει με την επίσημη προσφώνηση «Αξιότιμε κύριε/κυρία,». Όμως ο Αλέξανδρος γνωρίζει πως οι νεοσύστατες εταιρείες πληροφορικής έχουν έναν πιο ανεπίσημο χαρακτήρα. Επομένως, άρχισε την επιστολή του με ένα «Καλησπέρα,».

Ο Αλέξανδρος ανέφερε τους λόγους που ταιριάζει με το προφίλ του υπαλλήλου που ψάχνουν και έκλεισε το γράμμα του λέγοντας «Με εκτίμηση, Αλέξανδρος Παπαδόπουλος». Έπειτα, επισύναψε το βιογραφικό και την επιστολή σε ένα μήνυμα ηλεκτρονικού ταχυδρομείου και πάτησε «αποστολή». O πατέρας του Αλέξανδρου του είχε προτείνει ή να στείλει τα έγγραφα ταχυδρομικώς ή να παρουσιαστεί στην εταιρεία αυτοπροσώπως. Όμως οι συμβουλές αυτές δεν ανταποκρίνονται στην σημερινή εργασιακή πραγματικότητα. Επομένως, ο Αλέξανδρος δεν άκουσε τις συμβουλές του.

Οι ερωτήσεις:

Α) Ο Αλέξανδρος είναι φοιτητής Πληροφορικής. Σωστό ή λάθος;

Λάθος – ο Αλέξανδρος έχει ήδη αποφοιτήσει και αναζητά εργασία.

Β) Πόσα χρόνια εργασιακής εμπειρίας έχει ο Αλέξανδρος;

Όχι χρόνια, μήνες. Ο Αλέξανδρος έχει κάνει μόνο μια τρίμηνη πρακτική άσκηση.

Γ) Τι απέστειλε ο Αλέξανδρος μαζί με το βιογραφικό του σημείωμα;

Μια συνοδευτική επιστολή – αυτό που λένε στα αγγλικά “cover letter”.

Δ) Μπόρεσε ο πατέρας του Αλέξανδρου να βοηθήσει τον γιο του να βρει δουλειά;

Προσπάθησε αλλά δεν τα κατάφερε. Ο πατέρας δεν γνωρίζει τις σύγχρονες διαδικασίες εύρεσης εργασίας.

Μην διστάσετε να αφήσετε ένα σχόλιο εξηγώντας ποια ερώτηση σας δυσκόλεψε περισσότερο. Εάν σας άρεσε αυτού του είδους η άσκηση, μην διστάσετε να κάνετε like και θα επαναληφθεί στο μέλλον. Να έχετε μια όμορφη μέρα!

Greek Drama Ep.4: Helen by Euripides

A beautiful woman accused of causing chaos and bringing all evils to this world. She could be Eve or Pandora. But, this time, she is Helen. The one accused of causing the Trojan War. The one who left her husband’s side and traveled to Troy with another man, Paris.

Greek mythology and the Homeric hymns that kept them alive focused on brave heroes who fought battles and explored the world. Greek tragedy, on the other hand, placed the misunderstood characters under the spotlight. In the IIiad and the Odyssey, we hear what men had to say about Helen. In the play Helen by Euripides, we listen to her side of the story.

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Euripides’ Helen (Theatrical Play)

In 412 BC, the ancient Greek tragedian Euripides presented a trilogy of plays at the annual theatrical competition of Dionysia in Athens. One of those plays was Helen – inspired by the legend of Helen of Troy.

Helen’s Myth | Helen of Troy

According to the myth, Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the daughter of Zeus and Leda and wife of king Menelaus of Sparta. One night, Helen reportedly escaped Sparta with her Trojan lover, Paris. The latter was a young prince who was promised by goddess Aphrodite the most beautiful woman in the world. And, despite popular belief, it is not clear whether Helen chose to leave with Paris.

Ancient Greek sources are contradictory regarding Helen’s stance on this matter. Herodotus and most sources mention she was abducted by Paris. The poet Sappho, however, argues that Helen left Sparta willingly. “Full easy it is to make this understood of one and all: for she that far surpassed all mortals in beauty, Helen her most noble husband. Deserted, and went sailing to Troy, with never a thought for her daughter and dear parents.”, she writes.

Looking closely at the storyline, we can easily notice how irrelevant Helen’s stance appeared to be. Nobody really cared whether Helen was abducted or decided to escape from Sparta because she was unhappy. She was portrayed as the destructive woman – source of all evils- for whom several ships sailed towards Troy. And many young men fought and lost their lives. She, a “wicked woman”, was blamed for starting a vicious war.

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Euripides’ Take on Helen’s Myth

The unconventional ancient Greek tragedian Euripides wanted to defend Helen. Inspired by Herodotus’ claim that the Spartan queen was taken to Egypt by god Hermes, he told her version of the story.

In Euripides’ version of the story, Paris did not travel to Troy with Helen herself, but with an “eidolon” – a lifeless copy of her. Goddess Hera, protector of marriage, wanted to stop Paris from doing so. The Trojan prince had offered the apple of discord to another goddess and she aimed at punishing him. She ordered the messenger god Hermes to guide Helen out of her palace and transport her to Egypt, where she took refuge at the palace of Proteas.

The play starts with Helen standing next to Proteas’ grave, explaining her story. She is hopeless. She was taken away from home against her will. She had no way of returning home and she knew her name was tainted anyways. Not only that, but she felt uneasy in Egypt after her protector’s death. King Proteas’ son, Theoklymenos, put a lot of pressure on her. He wanted to marry her.

Helen then comes across a familiar face. Teucros, the best Greek archer who participated at the Trojan war, had visited the palace of Proteas to ask for a prophecy. Proteas’ daughter, Theonoe, was a well-known fortune teller at that time. Helen is desperate to know where her husband is and if he is searching for her. Teucros, however, informs her that Menelaos is probably dead. She also becomes aware of how hated she is by both Greeks and Trojans. Helen then starts mourning on stage, along with a group of Spartan women. She has lost all hope.

But what Helen, the tragic character of play, does not know, is that Menelaos is alive and hiding on the riverside of the Nile. He was washed ashore when his ship sunk. Him, the counterfeit Helen, and his men, were all hiding in a cave.

Menelaos then decides to seek for help at the palace of Proteas, where he comes across an old maid. The woman explains that Greeks are not welcome here. Theoklymenos, the son of Proteas, will execute any Greek who steps foot at his house, to keep Helen by his side. Menelaos is buffled. Who is this Helen she is talking about?

Menelaos and Helen finally meet and after a long dialogue – during which they are both skeptical about each other – they reunite. “I was tricked by the gods into taking to my arms a misty phantom-form, to my sorrow.”, he says. With one of the characters replying: “How so? Was it then for this we vainly toiled?”.

With Theonoe’s help, they manage to escape by boat and return to Sparta. Theoklymenos becomes enraged and almost kills his sister. But Theonoe is saved last minute with the help of the gods and goddesses.

Helen, a Play with Anti-War Sentiment

On a surface level, the tragedy focuses on the importance of virtue and oaths, especially between husband and wife. But Helen is more than a play about loyalty. The play is about the nonsense of war. What was the purpose of the Trojan war? Just a lifeless shadow. Euripides had just witnessed the defeat of Athens in the Sicilian Expedition. This war had caused great panic to Athenians and people started questioning the necessity of war.

Moreover, the play brings forward the voices of women who have been shamed and blamed from society without much proof. Both the feminist and anti-war sentiment of the play were inspired by the teachings of the sophists. The latter were Greek lecturers who questioned the values and ethics of their time. Some of them argued that women should be equal to men, that war only brings destruction, gods and goddesses do not exist, and that humanity should focus on science.

Euripides’ plays were controversial, since they questioned the morals of his time. He is known as the misunderstood tragedian and it took years to get recognized for his contribution to theatre. Helen has inspired many contemporary artists, including the Greek poet Yorgos Seferis.

Greek Drama Ep.6: The Concepts of Hybris, Nemesis, and Catharsis

Hybris, nemesis, and catharsis are three important aspects of every ancient Greek tragedy. Hybris and nemesis were mentioned way before the birth of Greek theatre; we know the terms from ancient Greek mythology. And catharsis is a concept that was introduced in drama. But what is the meaning of these three theatrical terms?