Many American Universities include social organizations such as fraternities and sororities. These groups are named after Greek letters, a tradition that reportedly started with the Phi Beta Kappa Society at the College of William and Mary. That is because in the 18th and 19th Centuries, higher education in the United States focused on the study of Latin and Ancient Greek. Knowing Latin was a requirement to study in a University, whereas knowing Greek meant that you were very cultured and significantly increased someone’s chances of getting accepted.
The only difference is that ancient and biblical Greek -sometimes modern Greek as well- were taught with the Erasmian pronunciation, which is different than the native speakers’ pronunciation.
Here is how some sororities would sound like in Greek:
Last time we followed Odysseus back to his kingdom, Ithaca. There he met with his son Telemachus and his loyal friend Eumaeus. Today we will cover books 17 to 24 of the Odyssey, finishing this series.
“The Odyssey” Books 17 – 20: The Suitors Meet Beggar-Odysseus
Telemachus visits the palace of Ithaca and meets his mother. She embraces him and asks whether he was able to collect any news regarding his father. The young prince follows the plan and does not reveal that his father has reached the island. Instead, he says that he is captured in Calypso’s island and that they should make a sacrifice to appease the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus. That is when Theoclymenus enters the scene. He is a prophet from Argos who was wanted for committing murder. The fugitive had sought refuge in Telemachus’ boat and ended up in Ithaca. He revealed that he had seen Odysseus on the island, but Penelope did not believe him.
It was almost nighttime when the suitors visited the palace to dine and drink wine. They used to eat and drink at the palace every night, along with Penelope’s maids. The queen of Ithaca was feeling helpless and unable to bring order to the kingdom of Ithaca. The island was ruled by complete chaos.
What the suitors did not know was that Odysseus, dressed up as a beggar, was walking towards his kingdom, along with his loyal friend, Eumaeus. A man named Melanthios sees the men and taunts Odysseus for his appearance. And what follows is one of the most iconic parts of Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus’ dog, Argos, was spotted laying nearby. Argos was only a puppy when the king of Ithaca travelled to Troy. But the dog, which was very old and neglected at that time, was able to recognize his master immediately and started wagging its tail. Argos was unable to run to Odysseus and due to his excitement and old age, died at the scene. The friendship between a dog and a man was considered sacred since ancient times.
Odysseus finally enters the palace and, pretending he is a beggar, starts asking for money from the thousands of suitors. Some of them throw bread at him. The king then starts narrating a story; how he also used to be rich. Antinous, one of the suitors, hits him on the shoulder and Odysseus, still disguised as a beggar, asks the gods to punish him. He doesn’t attack yet; his journey has taught him a lot and he has paid for his hybris.
Meanwhile, another beggar appears on the scene and asks Odysseus to fight – he didn’t want another beggar taking away some of his potential earnings. The beggar gets intimidated by Odysseus’ strong physique and the suitors offer some meat to the winner. The suitors have one more drink for the night and leave.
The king and prince of Ithaca then start hiding their weapons in the palace; they will use them tomorrow to scare away and kill the suitors. Once they are done, Odysseus visits Penelope in her chamber. The faithful queen of Ithaca does not recognize her husband. She sees a beggar who was mistreated by her maids and the angry suitors and feels bad for him. She asks him to narrate his story, but the man explains his past is too painful to be brought up. Penelope, feeling very familiar towards this stranger, starts discussing her own problems. How powerless she feels and how she might have to end up marrying one the suitors, although she detests them.
Odysseus then starts narrating a story to Penelope. That he is originally from Crete and that he once hosted Odysseus during his homecoming trip. He manages to describe him accurately; he was the same person after all. The queen cries and promises to host the man in her palace. The man promises that Odysseus is alive and on his way back, but Penelope cannot believe this scenario. So many years have passed by.
Following the rules of philoxenia, Penelope instructs Eyrykleia, her most loyal maid, to clean the host’s feet. The maid recognizes Odysseus from a hunting wound on his thigh and Odysseus warns her to not reveal his identity. Penelope then asks for Odysseus advice. She dreamt of an eagle that preys on geese in her kingdom; the eagle talks to her and says he is Odysseus and the geese are no other than the suitors. Odysseus says he believes that the dream will come true but Penelope is skeptical. She also reveals that she plans to choose her new husband tomorrow. She will marry whoever is able to shoot an arrow through twelve axe heads with Odysseus bow. Her real, disguised husband reminds her that Odysseus will come back and Penelope runs towards her chamber in tears.
Odysseus spends the night trying to convince himself to not attack the suitors while they sleep. Goddess Athena visits him and reassures him he will be able to fight against the suitors on his own. She promised to protect him with her divine powers. Meanwhile, Penelope prays to goddess Artemis to end her life.
The next morning, Penelope gathers the suitors in the main hall and announces them that she will marry one of them. She explains that the new king of Ithaca will be the man who will be able to shoot an arrow through twelve axe heads with Odysseus’ bow.
The suitors fail one by one and then beggar Odysseus asks to give it a try. The suitors laugh but Penelope allows him to use the bow, promising that she will give him food and clothes if he succeeds. Telemachus, knowing what is about to follow, leads his mother inside the house, while Eumaeus makes sure that the doors are locked. Odysseus shoots the arrow, which manages to go through all twelve axe heads. At the same time, a lightning strikes, a sign that Zeus is with Odysseus’ side again.
Once Odysseus shows his skills, he throws an arrow at Antinous, the vilest of the suitors. The rest of the men try to find their weapons but Odysseus and Telemachus had made sure to hid them carefully. With Athena’s help, Odysseus defeats the suitors one by one, and makes sure that the maids that were disloyal to him get punished as well.
Eyrykleia, the old maid, informs Penelope about Odysseus’ return and the death of the suitors. Penelope cannot believe this scenario; she thinks that the gods punished the suitors for their hybris and that Odysseus is dead. But then Odysseus enters her room and reveals his true identity. Penelope is hesitant to believe him; but Odysseus talks about their bed, which he had carved himself from an olive tree that has its roots in the foundation of the house. This bed cannot be moved, just like the couple’s faith and loyalty to each other. This secret that only he and she knew was enough to make Penelope believe that her husband was alive and standing in front of her. She hugs him and apologizes to him for her skepticism.
There are now two things left to do, a sacrifice to god Poseidon and a visit to the vineyards of Laertes, Odysseus’ old father. Odysseus meets his father, they embrace, and makes sure that Poseidon will favor him again by visiting the mainland holding the Winnowing Oar and making a sacrifice when he meets the first person who is unaware of the sea and seamen. As for the suitors, they end up in Hades, and their loss divides the people of Ithaca. With Athena’s intervention, peace is declared, and the Ithacans follow Odysseus, their true king; the one who is favored by the gods.
Last time we followed Odysseus from Troy to the land of the Lotus Eaters. We also saw what was happening in Ithaca during his absence. This time, we will continue with book nine of the Odyssey and follow Odysseus’ journey across the
Many people choose to live in Greece for work, studies, and love or because they want to experience the southern European lifestyle. There is a big expat community in Greece that consists of people from all around the world. Students, scholars, au pairs, entrepreneurs, farmers, artists, history lovers, and tourism workers move to Greece every year. Although speaking the language is not always required, it is recommended that you learn at least the basics of the Greek language. I can assure you that Greek is not as difficult as it seems.
Learning a new language requires building a strong grammatical foundation and enriching your vocabulary. Following your language instructor’s tips is crucial. The same goes with doing your homework and spending time studying. But if you want to become fluent in a language, you have to step up your game and immerse yourself in the language; learn in an indirect way, without studying “the traditional way”. Here are nine ways that can help you immerse yourself in Greek or any other language you want to learn!
Many young women and men choose to travel the world by becoming au pairs (seen also as “aupairs” or “au-pairs”). An au pair is a nanny/babysitter or household helper from a different country, who helps the host family learn his/her native language, while practicing the language of the hosts himself/herself. This is a great way to travel the world, while saving money, learning new languages, and developing important life skills and relationships.
Note: There are many agencies and applications that match au pairs with families. I can’t stretch enough how important it is to do a thorough research before travelling alone to live with a family you’ve never met in person or before hiring someone to take care of your children and live in your house. At the same time, you should be aware of your rights as an au pair and discuss your responsibilities with your host family in advance. Having experience as a babysitter, camp counselor etc. is a great advantage but not always required.
Benefits of Being an Au Pair | Becoming an Au Pair
As an au pair you will:
Become more responsible. Being responsible is a prerequisite when it comes to taking care of children. However, you will soon realize how much more responsible you will become in the process of taking care of someone else’s children and household.
Make friendships that last. Most au pairs create life-long bonds with their host family. In many cases, they become part of the family and visit them again in the future. Not only that, but there are tight knit au pair communities in every part of the world. Many au pairs spend valuable time with other au pairs in their days off and build friendships that easy.
Greek Lessons for Au Pairs | Learn Greek Online with Helinika
When a Greek family looks for a foreign au pair, they probably want you to speak your local language with their children. In this way, they can learn your language in a natural, immersive way. At the same time, it is important that you know at least the basics of the Greek language. The hosts will probably choose an au pair that speaks Greek over someone who doesn’t, even if the goal of having an au pair is to help the children learn your native language. If you daydream about becoming an au pair in Greece but Greek “is all Greek to you”, don’t be discouraged. Learning the basics of a language doesn’t always require spending a lot of hours/money in private language schools or tutors. You can teach yourself Greek at home with easy-to-follow video tutorials! Helinika has a complete video course series for learning Greek that can help you learn Greek in two months (on average). By registering through the following button, you will be able to receive a significantly lower price (special for au pairs). The course includes:
The 13th book of Odysseus’ journey starts in present time, with the Ithacan king finishing narrating his adventures in front of the people of Phaeacia. The hospitable islanders sympathized with Odysseus and they offered him a boat ride home, along with various gifts and resources. Odysseus thanks king Alcinous and the rest of the Phaeacians and gets on board. The boat finally arrives at Ithaca the next day, while Odysseus is asleep. The Phaeacians leave Odysseus on the shore and return to their peaceful island. Soon enough, Poseidon notices that they helped Odysseus reach Ithaca and he gets filled with anger. After asking permission from Zeus, god Poseidon turns the Phaeacian ship into stone few moments before it arrives in the harbor. As a result, the ship sinks and the Phaeacians who helped Odysseus reach Ithaca were never seen again. King Alcinous realized that helping Odysseus enraged the gods and swore to never help strangers ever again.
At the same time, king Odysseus wakes up and finds himself on a land he could not recognize. Goddess Athena appears in front of him as a shepherd and explains to him that he is indeed in Ithaca and that his people need him. Odysseus at first tries to conceal his identity, the goddess reveals her identity and advices him to use his tricks to eradicate the suitors who conspire against him and his son. To protect him, she transforms him into an old man and leaves Ithaca to go find Telemachus in the Peloponnese region.
“The Odyssey” Book 14: Eumaeus, The Loyal Friend
The transformed king of Ithaca follows Athena’s advice and hides into a hut that belongs to Eumaeus, a local farmer and loyal friend of Odysseus. There he meets Eumaeus, who not only feeds the transformed Odysseus but confesses to him how much he misses the king of Ithaca and how much he detests the men who have taken over his palace, trying to convince Penelope to marry one of them. Odysseus promises Eumaeus that his beloved king will return – his own identity is not revealed yet. He narrates a different story regarding his background and finally learns that his son is in danger, since the suitors are conspiring to kill him. Once the night arrives, Odysseus sleeps in the hut and Eumaeus tends to his herd.
While Odysseus sleeps, goddess Athena find Telemachus in the Peloponnese region and urges him to travel back to Ithaca to prevent his mother from marrying a suitor. She warns him of the dangers he might face and suggests that he visits Eumaeus first and let him visit Penelope to announce his return. As he leaves, an eagle flies off holding its pray. Is this a sign?
Back in the hut, Odysseus learns about the death of his mother and how lonely his father, Laertis, is. Eumaeus then narrates his own story. He was abducted by pirates when he was a child. King Laertis purchased him to save him and Odysseus’ mother raised him. While the farmer narrates his story to the transformed Odysseus, Telemachus arrives on the island.
“The Odyssey” Book 16: Father and Son Reunite
The young prince of Ithaca reaches Eumaeus’ hut, where he is greeted by the friendly farmer and is introduced to his father who had the appearance of an unrecognizable old man. Odysseus soon understands that his son does not feel confident enough to stand against the suitors. With Athena’s intervention, Odysseus regains his appearance and reveals his true identity to his son. The men embrace and cry together. United they can eradicate the hundreds of suitors that roam the palace. Father and son spend the whole night talking and coming up with the right plan that can help them regain power over their palace.
Will they succeed? Can father and son win against hundreds of suitors? If you are interested in hearing the rest of the story, don’t forget to subscribe (free). Also, if you enjoyed watching this video, feel free to like, comment and share.
Now, before you go, I need to make an important announcement. In case you don’t know this already, helinika offers a complete video course for learning Greek. Well, if you are a subscriber you can now benefit from a lot; you can watch the course with a discount, just by clicking on the link in the description down below! Last but not least, feel free to check helinika’s shop, where you will find some unique Greek-inspired artwork, tote bags, reusable bottles, and notebooks, all designed by me.
Are you preparing for your Erasmus semester in Greece? Is it your dream to study the classics in Athens or spend an adventurous semester on a Greek island? Then you might be wondering whether it is necessary to speak, write, and read in Greek on a proficient level.
The short answer to this is: no, it is not necessary. There are plenty of classes and seminars or entire programs that are held in English in Greek Universities. At the same time, most people can communicate in English. So, learning Greek is not a matter of survival.
But you should ask yourself:
Is it possible to get the ultimate Greek experience without speaking the language?
Will you be able to hangout with the local students?
Are all the classes you are interested in available in a language you are familiar with?
Greek Lessons for Erasmus Students | Greek for Erasmus
If you are interested in spending a semester in Athens, Thessaloniki, Rhodes, or any other place in Greece? Then you should consider getting started with at least the basics of the Greek language. And once you finally land there, you will be able to immerse yourself in Greek by attending classes, seminars, and by building relationships with Greek people.
We understand that learning Greek might be more challenging than learning French, Spanish, or Italian. And that is not necessarily because of the complexity of the language – once you get familiar with the alphabet, the rest will unfold- but mostly because of the lack of language schools that include Greek in their curriculum. The same goes with native Greek language instructors – they are not a lot out there. And here is where Helinika comes into place with its complete video course that is perfect for Erasmus students. You can now teach yourself Greek with easy-to-follow videos and learn one of the oldest languages in the world anytime, anywhere. All you need is access to a computer or a tablet.
Start learning Greek now and prepare for an exciting semester in Greece! Greek lessons for Erasmus students:
The area was surrounded by thick fog. Odysseus performed the ritual, which involved sacrificing animals and offering milk and honey. He was warned that if he did not feed the souls of the dead, they would try to drink his blood. From the pit he had dug, countless souls appeared and started to consume the offerings. Odysseus came across many people he had met in his life, including his dead mother Anticleia. The Ithacan king had to sit far away from the pit until the fortune teller Tiresias appeared. He cried while watching his mother feast on the blood, without being able to talk with her.
All of a sudden, Theban Teiresias appears. “Son of Laertes, sprung from Zeus, Odysseus of many devices, what now, hapless man? Why hast thou left the light of the sun and come hither to behold the dead and a region where is no joy? Nay, give place from the pit and draw back thy sharp sword, that I may drink of the blood and tell thee sooth,” he said.
Teiresias tells Odysseus that he should not touch the flocks of Helios when he lands on Thrinakia and he predicts that he will manage to kill Penelope’s suitors when he finally reaches Ithaca. Teiresias also consoles Odysseus to make a sacrifice to Poseidon once he reaches a land where the people do not know of the sea. This is the only way to appease the god of the sea and live a trouble-free life.
Teiresias then allows Anticleia to drink from the blood and finally talk with her son. Odysseus had left Ithaca knowing that his mother was alive. He was unaware she was dead. Anticleia explains that she couldn’t bear waiting for her son’s return; her constant worries killed her. Odysseus tries to hug his mother at this point but she vanishes into thin air. The souls of the dead start surrounding Odysseus, telling him their stories of how they died. The king of Ithaca starts running away from the pit and sails away with his crew.
They first stop at Circe’s island where they make a funeral pyre for the soul of Elpenor who had died there and whom they met when talking with the souls of the dead. Circe then warns them of a great danger they might face during their trip. On their way to the island of Helios, the Sun, the Ithacans might come across the Sirens, a group of dangerous creatures that lured sailors with their beautiful voices on the rocks they resided on. Contrary to the popular belief, the Sirens were not mermaids but gigantic birds that had women’s faces.
The Ithacans were advised to wear earplugs and therefore never listen to the irresistible song of the Sirens. And that is exactly what they did. However, Odysseus was very curious and wanted to have this experience before settling to Ithaca. Instead of wearing earplugs, he asked his sailors to tie him to the mast and commanded them to not listen to him or untie him until they are far away from the Sirens.
The sailors soon noticed the rocky island of the Sirens in the horizon. They tied Odysseus to the mast, put some wax in their ears, and started paddling faster than ever. The blood-thirsty Sirens tried seducing the men with their beautiful voices, asking them to make a stop on their island. Odysseus was begging his men for mercy – he was asking them to untie him and let him swim towards these magical and seductive women. But his sailors could not listen to him. After some time that felt like an eternity, they were able to sail away from the Sirens and finally untie their leader.
The next obstacle they had to surpass was a pass between Scylla and Charybdis, two deadly sea monsters that had caused countless deaths in the sea. The narrow pass was located between Sicily and Calabria. On one hand, there was Scylla, a six-headed dog-like creature that would eat sailors that accidentally sailed closed to it and, on the other hand, there was Charybdis, a monster that lived under a small rock and created whirlpools that sank any nearby boats.
Odysseus had to make a difficult decision here. Which option was the least dangerous for him and his crew? He realized that by avoiding Charybdis and approaching Scylla, he would loose fewer men: Charybdis would sink the entire ship, whereas Scylla would only be able to grab and eat a few men. That was a sacrifice that had to be made.
The crew passed by Scylla and Odysseus tells his men to not fear – he didn’t want them to panic; panic could be deadlier than the sea monster. Scylla managed to eat six men to the horror of Odysseus and the rest of the men. The crew managed to stay focused and sailed away, approaching the island of Helios, mourning their dead friends.
Teiresias and Circe had warned Odysseus to not eat the animals that resided on the island, since this would enrage Zeus. However, the winds were not in their favor and the crew remained stranded on the island. There was almost no food left and some of the men decide to eat the cattle of Helios, without asking for Odysseus’ permission. That action enraged Zeus who conjured a storm and targeted Odysseus’ ship with a thunderbolt, wrecking it. The men fell into the water and the enormous waves managed to separate them from each other. Odysseus managed to grab onto a floating piece of wood and watched the waves take him towards the whirlpool of Charybdis. The lucky Ithacan managed to escape and, after passing by Scylla, he ends up in Calypso’s island.
And this is when Odysseus ends his story, thanking Alcinous for his hospitality. It is time for him to get on board and leave Phaeacia. What will happen next? Will Poseidon and Zeus allow Odysseus reach Ithaca?
“The Odyssey” Books 9-12: Continuing the Wanderings of Odysseus
After managing to leave the land of the Lotus Eaters, wily Odysseus and his crew reached the land of the Cyclopes, which is estimated to be located in Sicily. The Cyclopes were giants with one enormous eye on their forehead. They were violent and lawless creatures and they were not the brightest either.
Odysseus and his man explored the land, ate some of the livestock, and found a cave that seemed occupied. They wanted to ask for help and entered the cave which was the home of Cyclops Polyphemus. The latter not only denied helping the men but ate some of them and trapped Odysseus and the rest of his crew in his dark, terrifying home. Little did he know that Odysseus was not only brave but blessed with the ability to find solutions in the most difficult situations.
Wily Odysseus offers some of his wine to Polyphemus and introduces himself – he says his name is “Kanenas” which translates to “Nobody” in Greek. Polyphemus soon falls asleep after drinking the wine and Odysseus finds the opportunity to create a sharp spear from Polyphemus large club. With the help of his men, he blinds Cyclops Polyphemous who wakes up, opens the door, and screams for help. This is when the Ithacans manage to escape and run towards their ship. The other Cyclopes visited Polyphemus asking him who hurt him. “Nobody” he screamed. The Cyclopes get confused and leave Polyphemus alone, thinking he blinded himself.
Odysseus and his men were already on their boats, staring and pointing at the giant man who was tricked by a group of tiny humans. Odysseus was ecstatic; he had fought men in Troy but managing to win against a giant creature like Polyphemus was a great achievement. And that is when he began insulting Polyphemus while sailing away. He was unaware that he had committed an hybris and he was soon going to face the wrath of Poseidon, father of Polyphemus and god of the sea. Poseidon throws an enormous rock at Odysseus that nearly hits his boat. Odysseus is now cursed to never return home – at least alive.
Odysseus and his crew manage to reach the Island of the Wind, where Aiolos, the god of the Winds, resides. Aeolia was located close to Sicily and Aiolos was very kind and hospitable towards Odysseus and his crew. The Ithacans stayed there for one month and before they sailed away, Aiolos gifted Odysseus a bag containing winds that could help them reach Ithaca faster.
With the westerlies at their back, the boats start approaching Ithaca within ten days. Odysseus stared at the starry night over Ithaca knowing he would step foot on his beautiful kingdom probably within a day. And he fall asleep peacefully on the dock. Some of his men though could not sleep that night. What was in Aiolos’ bag? Did it contain winds or treasures? What is Aiolos’ had given gold to Odysseus and the latter did not want to share the gifts with his men? These greedy men decided to open the bag, just like Pandora opened the box containing all evils. The winds were forcefully released, creating a hurricane that lead the boats back at Aeolia. Aiolos speculates that Odysseus’ journey is cursed and explains that he can’t help him any further.
The Ithacans start sailing without any wind and they soon reach Lamos, a place that was inhabited by a group of aggressive cannibals called Laestrygonians. The Laestrygonians attacked and ate many of Odysseus’ men in front of the rest of the crew who watched in horror. The Ithacans run back to their boats, however, the hungry cannibals started throwing rocks at them. The rocks destroyed all ships but one. Odysseus and the rest of the survivors managed to escape by paddling faster than ever.
The next stop was the island of the witch Circe, Aeaea. Odysseus’ men were terrified to search for the inhabitants, since they had been meeting only dangerous, inhospitable individuals. However, Odysseus sends some of his men to follow a smoke trail that was coming from the depths of the woods. The men found a home that was guarded by wolves and mountain lions. A woman was singing inside the house – she invited the men inside, welcomed them, and prepared a feast for them. Little did they know that she was the witch Circe.
The men start eating and drinking, except for sailor Eurylokhos who was hesitant towards strangers after witnessing his mates being consumed by giants not once but twice. Suddenly, the men start turning into pigs – their drinks contained a powerful potion that Circe had prepared for the men who displeased her. Eurylokhos informs Odysseus and the latter visits Circe and threatens her that he will kill her unless she takes the hex back. Circe explains that the curse will break only if Odysseus spends a night with her – a proposal that the king of Ithaca found quite fair.
Odysseus ended up spending an entire year at Circe’s island, which had turned into a paradise for him and his men (who were not only turned back into men, but their looks were also enhanced). Eventually, the Ithacans realize that it is time to go home. Odysseus asks Circe to help them return to Ithaca and she reveals to him that, in order to break the curse, he would have to visit Hades, the kingdom of the Dead, and speak with Tiresias, the well-known fortune teller and prophet. She explains what he would have to do there and how to protect himself from the blood-thirsty souls of the dead. How will Odysseus travel to Hades? Who is he going to meet there? Stay tuned because Part III will be coming soon!
Immersion is a language learning method, in which the student is exposed to the target language with little to no instructions in their mother tongue. The students learn the language like native speakers. Audiovisual elements and repetitions are used to help the students understand the context. In this video, the students are not given a list of colors and their translation. They listen and read phrases along with videos and images that can help them easily memorize the colors and other words that are used in the sentences. A big focus is given on the structure of the sentences.
It is recommended that you are already familiar with the Greek language. Join Helinika’s discounted video courses and learn the basics of the Greek language: