Ancient Greek Ghost Stories (Halloween Special) |#GreekMyths

With Halloween approaching, today’s video on Greek mythology is dedicated on ancient Greek ghost stories. Before we get started, make sure to subscribe to Helinika’s YouTube channel and never miss a video in the future.

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Ancient Ghost History: Facts About Ghosts

Cases of ghostly apparitions have been reported since ancient times, particularly in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece. There are many references of ghosts in Mesopotamian religions and in the ancient Egyptian culture, where ghosts were believed to be the souls and spirits of people who exited their material body and influenced the lives of the living. Ghosts could either harm people or assist them.

In ancient Greece, ghosts were called «φαντάσματα», a term that could be translated as “apparition”. Ancient Greek ghosts would reside in Hades, the kingdom of the dead and would be contacted by oracles to reveal truths about the past, present, and future – a practice known as necromancy. For example, Odysseus, king of Ithaca, was believed to have contacted the dead to find the safest way to reach his kingdom. In this story, it is revealed that the souls of the dead were blood-thirsty, having characteristics of modern vampires. Moreover, witches would often leave notes and curse tablets in newly dug graves, expecting the dead to act as messengers and deliver their requests to the chthonic deities of the underworld, such as Pan, Persephone, and Hecate.

In classical antiquity, however, the concept of “haunting” was introduced and ghosts were perceived similarly as in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The souls of the dead could walk on the world of the living and haunt them. An example of that would be the story of Athenodorus’ haunting.

Helinika has collected ghost stories from different times of Greece’s ancient history. Some of them were narrated for entertainment purposes, while others were reported by ancient historians as real events. Stay till the end because some of the stories are terrifying.

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Odysseus Crosses the Veil Between the Living and the Dead

Odysseus was an ancient Greek king of the island of Ithaca in the Ionian Sea. He is known as the mythical hero of the epic poem “The Odyssey”, which is attributed to the ancient Greek poet Homer. In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus goes through a series of adventures to get from Troy to Ithaca. At some point, he is instructed by a witch named Circe to contact the dead and learn more about his upcoming obstacles.

Odysseus arrives at a dark, foggy, and cold place named “Cimeria”, which is estimated to be modern-day Crimea. According to the legend, the veil between the world of the living and the world of the dead is very thin there. As soon as the Ithacan king arrived in Cimeria, he dug a hole in the ground, sacrificed animals, and poured milk and honey in the pit in order to attract the souls of the dead.

The otherwise brave and fearless Odysseus is terrified with the terrifying ghosts that appear before him. However, he manages to keep calm and finally talk to the blind prophet Teiresias, who instructs him how to reach Ithaca safely. He is also able to talk to his late mother – a tragic scene, since the hero was unaware of his mother’s death. It is important to remember that, in order to communicate with the dead, Odysseus had to offer animal blood, milk, and honey. These three things are considered to be attractors of ghosts till this day. So, if you do believe in ghosts, never mix all these ingredients together.

Macabre Tales of Ancient Greek Necromancy

Necromancy (from the Greek “νεκρός” and “μαντεία”) is a divination practice that involves some type of communication with the dead. You might be aware of modern-day mediums contacting spirits through dreams and visions or during seances and even by playing board games. Although these ways of communicating with the dead still give people the creeps, you can’t imagine how terrifying ancient methods of necromancy could get.

The less scary divination and magic practices involved inhaling hallucinogenic gases and chewing Nerium. Just like Pythia did in the oracle of Delphi when she supposedly communicated with gods and spirits. However, ancient Greek witches would often follow macabre rituals that involved digging up graves and stealing parts or entire human bodies. They would then use them to briefly bring the dead back to life and reveal secrets and truths. Sometimes, they would ask the dead man or woman to ask Hecate or another chthonic deity to curse someone. They would then burn the bodies and end their lives a second time.

A macabre story of necromancy is the one of Thelyphron in Apuleius. Thelyphron is a (fictional?) man that visits the Greek city of Larissa, where he learns that the area is infested with shape-shifting witches who try to steal the bodies of people who have recently died. The man is offered a well-paid job: to guard the body of a man the night before his burial. Thelyphron spends a night in a dark room with the dead body, holding a lantern. At some point, a bird enters the room and he tries to catch it. Within seconds, he falls into a deep sleep and awakens only when the sun is shining. Thankfully, the body he guarded was intact.

The widow thanked him and payed him for his service. When he tried to exit the house, he was greeted by an angry crowd. Friends and relatives of the diseased man were accusing the widow that she murdered her husband to live with her lover. A necromancer arrives at the scene to awaken the man. A ghost appears and enters his lifeless body.

The zombie reveals that he was indeed poisoned by his wife. He then turns his head and stares at Thelyphron, who stood there petrified. The zombie thanks his guardian for scaring away the witch who entered his room at night. However, he reveals that the witch, disguised as a bird, hypnotized Thelyphron and stole parts of his nose and ears. Thelyphron is shocked; he touches his nose, then his ear and chunks of wax fall on the ground. The witch had not only stolen his body parts, but had replaced them with wax figures. The crowd starts laughing at poor Thelyphron who runs away from Larissa.

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The Real(?) Haunting of Athenodorus

Athenodorus was a philosopher and student of Posidonius of Rhodes, who eventually became the mentor of the first Roman emperor. However, he is known not only as a great thinker, but also as the witness of the first haunting ever reported. His experience has inspired countless urban legends, novels, and movies, but it has been reported as a true story.

Just like other thinkers in the 1st century AD, philosopher Athenodorus spent time studying in the city of Athens. As a broke student, he was looking for cheap houses to rent. After long research, he came across an amazing opportunity. There was a large and beautiful home offered at an extremely low price. It was a catch!

Athenodorus was warned that the house was rumored to be haunted with the spirit of a chained old man who would roam from room to room at night, dragging his chains and moaning. Not only that, but the ghost was said to have cursed the house. Whoever was brave enough to rent it would suffer from mysterious sicknesses. Rumor had it that those who stayed there for too long would eventually die from the lack of sleep and the abundance of stress and fear.

However, Athenodorus was a sceptic. He kept thinking how much money he would save while staying in a literal mansion. The philosopher rented the house and spent his first day organizing it. The house was a literal mess. And by the time the first night stars started beaming in the Athenian sky, he was able to relax in his new office room and start studying philosophy – his favorite nightly habit.

Athenodorus was concentrated on his studies when he suddenly heard heavy steps and chains rattling within his house. Could the rumors be true? Or was someone playing a prank on him? The young philosopher stayed focused on his books, refusing to look at the source of the noise. The footsteps kept coming closer and closer and he could hear a man’s heavy breathing. He eventually looked up only to see the ghostly figure of a man in chains.

Although terrified, the philosopher asked the ghost to leave his room. He needed to study. The ghost seemed impatient, he rattled his chains and seemed to be asking Athenodorus to follow him. Athenodorus finally understood what was going on and stood up. He was willing to follow the phantom wherever he wanted him to go.

The chained ghost started walking from room to room and finally exited through the backdoor. As soon as the phantom stepped on the courtyard, it vanished. The philosopher grew suspicious. Was someone murdered and buried there?

The next morning, Athenodorus visited the city officials and asked them to excavate his courtyard. He was right; a skeleton tied with heavy chains was discovered there. The bones were removed and buried according to the ancient traditions in a cemetery. No ghosts ever visited Athenodorus again. He was able to enjoy his enormous house all by himself!

Have you ever heard of any of these stories? Feel free to share any ghost stories from your countries and don’t forget to follow Helinika on social media!

Learn Greek at Home During Quarantine

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This Is Your Sign for Learning Greek

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Greek Christmas Cards Featuring a “Karavaki”

“Karavaki” means “little boat” in Greek. Although many Greek households decorate Christmas trees during the holidays, the original Greek Christmas tradition is to decorate the family’s boat or a tiny miniature vessel. Helinika has created two designs for Christmas cards, featuting a “karavaki”. “Χρόνια πολλά” (Chronia polla), a common Greek greeting during the holidays, is written across the card. It means “may you live many years”. Order the cards and send them to your friends and family this or next year!

Minimal Line and Shape Wall Art Designs by Helinika

Helinika’s shop on Redbubble is introducing a new collection named “Minimal Shape and Line Art”. Inspired by the simplicity of the Greek aesthetic, these wall art designs will add character to your living space.

Greek Grammar Exercise: Greek Verbs in The Present Tense (Ασκήσεις Ενεστώτα)

Test your Greek language skills by adding the modern Greek verbs in the Present Tense (Ενεστώτα). The first three are multiple choice exercises, but you will have to fill-in the blanks in the last three examples. You can find the correct answers at the bottom of the page.

Άσκηση 1:

Ο Γιάννης και ο Δημήτρης ………………….. (κάνω) ποδήλατο.

Α) κάνει

Β) κάνουν

Γ) έκανα

Δ) κάνεις

Άσκηση 2:

Εσύ δεν ………………….. (έχω) αδέλφια;

Α) έχει

Β) έχουν

Γ) έχεις

Δ) είχες

Άσκηση 3:

Εμείς ………………… (γράφω) διαγώνισμα σήμερα.

Α) γράφεις

Β) έγραφα

Γ) γράφουμε

Δ) γράφαμε

Άσκηση 4:

Η Μαρία ………………….. (είμαι) έξυπνη, όμως δεν …………………… (διαβάζω) αρκετά.

Άσκηση 5:

Εσείς ………………….. (ντύνομαι) γρήγορα.

Άσκηση 6:

Ο Κωνσταντίνος και η Ελένη ……………………….. (τρώω) στο εστιατόριο.

You Can Find The Answers Down Below

Απαντήσεις (Answers)

Άσκηση 1: κάνουν (β)

Άσκηση 2: έχεις (γ)

Άσκηση 3: γράφουμε (γ)

Άσκηση 4: είναι

Άσκηση 5: ντύνεστε

Άσκηση 6: τρώνε

This Is Your Sign for Learning Greek

You have been debating whether you should start learning modern Greek and you constantly postpone it for the next week, the next month, the next year. Maybe you are contemplating how difficult it would be to learn a new language or you might not know where to start. Or you may not be sure why you even want to learn Greek in the first place. Whatever the reason might be, here is the sign you were looking for. Start learning Greek today.

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What Do Greeks Celebrate on October 28?

On the 28th of October Greeks and philhellenes around the world celebrate the “Anniversary of the No” (Επέτειος του Όχι), also known as “Ohi Day” (Ημέρα του Όχι). It marks Greece’s rejection of Benito Mussolini’s ultimatum to allow Axis forces to enter Greek territory during World War II.

The 28th of October is an annual national holiday in the Hellenic Republic, and it is celebrated with military and student parades. The student parades are a controversial topic in Greece, with some people stating that children should not be parading as soldiers and others adding that the parades are symbolic, showing the young generation’s respect for their ancestors’ sacrifices.

The Greek Anniversary of the No (Ohi Day). Metaxa’s Reply

According to the official report of events, the Prime Minister of Greece, General Ioannis Metaxas, received an ultimatum from the Italian embassy to Greece in the early hours of the 28th October 1940. They demanded to allow Axis forces to enter Greek territory; otherwise, war would ensue.

Metaxas replied with the phrase “Alors, c’est la guerre!” (Then it is war!). However, there is an unverified common belief that his reply was a laconic «Όχι!» (No!). This day does not only mark the start of the Greco-Italian war, but also Greece’s general stance against Italian Fascism and German Nazism.

It is important to note that General Metaxas was the totalitarian leader of the 4th of August Regime that was inspired by the rhetoric of Musolini but kept closed relations with Britain and the French Third Republic.

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Four Things to Avoid in Greece | Greece Travel Advice

Some time ago I posted a video with do’s and dont’s in Athens, Greece. But I realized that there are other things that I did not mention and that do not apply only in Athens. So today I will discuss some things to avoid when traveling or moving to Greece. Before we get started, make sure to subscribe and stay till the end because the last two things I will mention are literally lifesaving.

Things to Avoid in Greece:

  1. Splitting the Bill
  2. Not Tipping
  3. Dress Appropriately When Sightseeing
  4. Showering When the Water Heater is On

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When Eating and Drinking in Greece, Avoid Splitting the Bill

You are eating out with friends in a restaurant in Greece and it is time to pay the bill. Although a lot of bars and restaurants nowadays offer the option of having each person pay individually, splitting the bill is considered bad etiquette and it is generally frowned upon. In Greece, restaurants are responsible for creating a bill for every single table and not for every single person who is eating there. Then, it is the responsibility of the people who sit on the table to find a way to pay for everything.

That is not only because it is way faster for the waiters and waitresses who need to attend other tables, but also because, in Greece, it is common to order food as a group and not as an individual. For example, Greeks usually order a bunch of different dishes that they agree upon and each person gets an empty plate to fill it up with anything they like. Just like a family would do at home.

It is important to remember that Greece is considered much less individualistic and much more collectivistic than countries such the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom, without that meaning that people have less individual rights or anything like this. It is more about how well people integrate into groups and how easy it is to take decisions as a collective.

Tipping Might Be Optional in Greece But It Is Also Expected

Tipping in Greece is not mandatory, as it is in the US, and you definitely don’t have to do any calculations to make sure that you tipped an acceptable amount. However, unless the service was terrible, you are expected to leave a tip on the table that you deem appropriate for the service. That applies mostly in cafes, bars, and restaurants, rather than hair salons or other businesses that offer some type of service. Tipping taxi drivers or employees in self-service restaurants is less common. However, when ordering food, tipping the delivery man or woman is recommended.

There is no specified percentage of the bill that should be offered as a tip. Most people would agree that one euro for two cups of coffee and five euros for a 25-euro bill at a restaurant are acceptable. When the amount you have to pay is too small, it is preferred to round things down: giving 2 euros when the bill says 1,65. However, leaving 1-2  cents as a tip is worse than not leaving a tip at all.

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Dress Appropriately When Sightseeing

Most museums and archaeological sites around the world have dress codes or at least a few rules regarding what is not allowed to wear. The same applies in Greece. As in most European countries, the dress code in Greek museums is very relaxed – you don’t have to dress up formally or cover your entire body, but you might be asked to cover up if you enter without a shirt or with a crop top.

What most visitors do not know is that there are stricter rules when visiting archaeological sites. For example, the Herodion Theater of Athens does not allow the entrance to anyone wearing hilled shoes, since they can ruin the marble auditorium. Furthermore, if you are visiting historical churches and monasteries, you might be asked to cover your legs, whether you are a man or a woman.

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Avoid Showering When the Water Heater (Boiler) is On

Houses and apartment buildings in Greece have two different water heaters: one powered with solar energy and an electric one. The second is used only on the rare occasion that there is no sunlight for over 24 hours. Also, some old houses do not have a solar powered water heater installed.

If you have to turn on an electric water heater when travelling in Greece, note that you shouldn’t let it run for hours. It is extremely costly and the chances of starting a fire due to an electrical short circuit are high. But the most important part is to always turn it off when someone is showering. Many water heaters are not properly insulated and showering with the water heater on can lead to electrocution.

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Greek Flag Day: October 27 | Greek National Day

“Greek Flag Day”, known also as “Greek National Day”, is celebrated on the 27th of October, one day before the “Ohi Day”. Helinika has gathered everything you should know about the national flag of the Hellenic Republic.

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About the Greek National Flag

The flag of Greece as we know it today was adopted in 1978. However, similar versions of the flag had been used throughout the years since the Greek Revolution, also known as the Greek War of Independence.

The national flag of the Hellenic Republic is blue and white and it is therefor called «Γαλανόλευκη» (Bluewhite). There is no specified shade of blue for the Greek flag. Generally speaking, the darker the shade of blue used, the more conservative the flag maker is. That is because a darker shade of blue was used during the years of the Greek junta. The colors symbolize the sea and clear blue sky; two of the most iconic elements of the Hellenic Republic.

There are nine horizontal stripes on the Greek national flag: five blue and four white. According to popular belief, that the number of stripes symbolizes the nine syllables of the historical phrase «Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος» (Freedom or Death). However, others suggest that they are a symbol of the nine Muses in ancient Greek mythology.

The cross on the upper left corner of the Greek national flag signifies the most predominant religion in Greece, which is Greek Orthodox Christianity. Religion plays a big role in the Greek culture, however, Greece is a secular state.

It is important to note that the use of the Greek flag is regulated by Law 851.

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Modern Greek Verb “To Have” (Έχω) Conjugation in Present, Past, and Future

The modern Greek verb «έχω» means “to have”. «Έχω» is one of the most useful modern Greek verbs, since it is used in all the Perfect Greek tenses (Παρακείμενος, Υπερσυντέλικος, Μέλλοντας Συντελεσμένος). The Greek verb “to have” only has one Present, one Past, and one Future form. That means that it is not conjugated in every single modern Greek tense. Here is the conjugation of the Greek verb “to have” in all of its three forms.

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Greek Verb “To Have” in the Present: Έχω (I have)

εγώ έχω

εσύ έχεις

αυτός-ή-ό έχει

εμείς έχουμε

εσείς έχετε

αυτοί-ές-ά έχουν

Greek Verb “To Have” in the Past: Είχα (I had)

εγώ είχα

εσύ είχες

αυτός-ή-ό είχε

εμείς είχαμε

εσείς είχατε

αυτοί-ές-ά είχαν

Greek Verb “To Have” in the Future: Θα Έχω (I will have)

εγώ θα έχω

εσύ θα έχεις

αυτός-ή-ό θα έχει

εμείς θα έχουμε

εσείς θα έχετε

αυτοί-ές-ά θα έχουν

Greek Listening #1: The Greek Dialects | Greek Comprehension

greek listening exercice

Welcome to Helinika’s new video series “Greek Listening”/ “Greek Comprehension”. Today, we discuss the topic of the Greek dialects within and outside the Greek borders.

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Read the Entire Script:

Γεια σε όλους.

Hello everyone.

Σήμερα θα μιλήσουμε για τις διαλέκτους της ελληνικής γλώσσας.

Today we will talk about the dialects of the Greek language.

Οι πιο χαρακτηριστικές διάλεκτοι της ελληνικής είναι

The most characteristic dialects of the Greek (language) are

εκείνες των Ελλήνων της Κάτω Ιταλίας, της Κύπρου, της Πόλης, και του Πόντου.

those of the Greeks of Southern Italy (Griko), Cyprus, (Konstantinou)Polis, and Pontos.

Στην Κύπρο, τα ελληνικά ακούγονται πιο μελωδικά, σχεδόν τραγουδιστά.

In Cyprus, the Greek (language) sounds more melodic, almost like singing.

Επίσης, υπάρχουν διαφορές στη γραμματική και στο λεξιλόγιο.

Also, there are differences in grammar and vocabulary.

Αρκημός, επί παραδείγματι, σημαίνει αρχή. Βαρκούμαι σημαίνει βαριέμαι και ούτω καθεξής.

Arkimos, as an example, start. Varkoumai means I am bored and so forth.

Οι Έλληνες της Κάτω Ιταλίας μιλάνε μια διάλεκτο που μοιάζει αρκετά με τα αρχαία ελληνικά.

The Grikos (Greeks of South Italy) speak in a dialect that resembles the ancient Greek language.

Για παράδειγμα, χρησιμοποιούν ακόμα το αρχαίο ελληνικό απαρέμφατο.

For example, they still use the ancient Greek infinitive (form of the verbs).

Στην Ελλάδα, την διάλεκτο αυτή την αποκαλούμε «Γραικάνικα».

In Greece, this dialect is called “Grecanica”.

Ωστόσο, ακόμα και εντός των ελληνικών συνόρων, υπάρχουν κάποιες διαφορές

However, even within the Greek borders, there are a few variations

στην προφορά, στον τονισμό, στο λεξιλόγιο… ακόμα και στη γραμματική.

in the accent, accentuation, vocabulary… even grammar.

Αυτές οι γλωσσικές διαφορές εντός συνόρων, οι τοπικές διάλεκτοι, ονομάζονται και ντοπιολαλιές.

This glossological differences within borders, the regional dialects, are also called “dopiolalies” (patois).

Για παράδειγμα, στην Θεσσαλονίκη και στη βόρεια Ελλάδα γενικότερα

For example, in Thessaloniki and generally in northern Greece

το σύμφωνο λ είναι πιο παχύ. Ορισμένες φορές το ίδιο ισχύει για το μ και το ν.

the consonant l is thicker. Sometimes, the same applies to m and n.

Για παράδειγμα, το λάχανο (x2).

For example, the cabbage (x2).

Επίσης, είναι σύνηθες να χρησιμοποιείται η αιτιατική αντί της γενικής

Also, it is common to use accusative instead of genitive

σε φράσεις όπως: «μου αρέσει», «σου πάει», «μου είπε»…

in phrases such as: “Ι like him/her/it”, “he/she/it suits you”, “he/she/it told me”…

Στην Θεσσαλονίκη θα πουν: «με αρέσει», «σε πάει», «με είπε» κλπ.

In Thessaloniki they will say: (same phrases, different cases)

Ακόμα, ορισμένες λέξεις έχουν άλλη σημασία. Όπως το «κασέρι».

Moreover, some words have a different meaning. Such as “kasseri”.

«Κασέρι» στην Αθήνα και σε άλλες περιοχές είναι ένα είδος κίτρινου τυριού.

“Kaseri” in Athens and other places is a type of yellow cheese.

Ωστόσο, στην Θεσσαλονίκη, “κασέρι” ονομάζεται κάθε κίτρινο τυρί. Και όλα τα άσπρα τυριά ονομάζονται φέτα.

However, in Thessaloniki, “kasseri” is the name of every yellow cheese. And all types of white cheese are called feta.

Ακόμα, υπάρχουν διαφορές στον τονισμό ορισμένων λέξεων. Για παράδειγμα, στη βόρεια Ελλάδα, το επίθετο «στρογγυλός-η-ο» τονίζεται στην πρώτη συλλαβή: «στρόγγυλος-η-ο».

Also, there are differences in the accentuation of certain words. For example, in northern Greece, the adjective “round” takes the accent mark on the first syllable.

Σε άλλα μέρη της Ελλάδας, ορισμένα φωνήεντα ή σύμφωνα δεν προφέρονται. Για παράδειγμα, σε ορεινά χωριά της Θεσσαλίας η φράση «τι κάνεις;» συχνά προφέρεται «τι κάνς;».

In other places in Greece, some vowels or consonants are not spelled out. For example, in villages located on mountains in Thessaly, the phrase “how are you” is spelled out “how’re ya”.

Στην Κρήτη, οι ντόπιοι έχουν επίσης μια ιδιαίτερη και μελωδική προφορά.

In Crete, the locals also have a special and melodic pronunciation.

Πολλές λέξεις διαφέρουν. Για παράδειγμα, το «γατάκι» λέγεται «κατσούλι», το «παιδί» λέγεται «κοπέλι» και ούτω καθεξής.

Some words differ. For example, the “kitty” is called “katsouli”, the “child” is called “kopeli” and so forth.

Σε ορισμένες περιοχές της Πελοποννήσου και αλλού, o συνδυασμός του γράμματος «ν» ή του γράμματος «λ» με το «ι» (η/ει/υ/oι) προφέρεται διαφορετικά.

In some parts of the Peloponnese region and elsewhere, the combination of the consonants “n” and “l” with “e” is pronounced differently.

«Λοιπόν», «Πεπόνι» (x2)

“Well”, “Mellon” (x2)

Εσείς γνωρίζατε ότι υπάρχουν τόσες διάλεκτοι; Αν ναι, ποια είναι η αγαπημένη σας;

Did you know that there are so many dialects? If yes, which one is your favorite?

Μην ξεχάσετε να κάνετε εγγραφή και θα σας δω στο επόμενο βίντεο! Αντίο!

Don’t forget to subscribe and I will see you in the next video! Bye!

Greek Language Immersion with Listening Exercises

Listening comprehension exercises are essential for improving your listening and speaking skills in a foreign language. They help you immerse yourself in the language, understand how native speakers converse in a natural way, and memorize helpful words and phrases that you can later use when speaking Greek or any other language you currently learn. Helinika created a new video series on YouTube called “Greek Listening Comprehension” that does exactly that.

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What Are Helinika’s Listening Comprehension Videos?

Helinika’s instructor talks about a topic in Greek, providing you with Greek and English subtitles. Depending on your level, you either listen to the audio without paying attention to the subtitles, read only the Greek subtitles, or only the English subtitles. Since some of the words might be challenging even for proficient Greek speakers, the video script for each video will be uploaded here, on Helinika’s website.

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Greek Verb “To Be” Conjugation (Είμαι, Ήμουν, Θα Είμαι)

The most common modern Greek verb is the verb “είμαι” (to be). The Greek verb “to be” has only three forms: one for the present, one for the future, and one for the past. There are no specific forms for every single modern Greek tense for the verb “είμαι”.

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Greek Verb “To Be” in the Present: Είμαι (I am)

εγώ είμαι

εσύ είσαι

αυτός-ή-ό είναι

εμείς είμαστε

εσείς είστε

αυτοί-ές-ά είναι

Greek Verb “To Be” in the Future: Θα Είμαι (I will be)

εγώ θα είμαι

εσύ θα είσαι

αυτός-ή-ό θα είναι

εμείς θα είμαστε

εσείς θα είστε

αυτοί-ές-ά θα είναι

Greek Verb “To Be” in the Past: Ήμουν (I was)

εγώ ήμουν

εσύ ήσουν

αυτός-ή-ό ήταν

εμείς ήμασταν

εσείς ήσασταν

αυτοί-ές-ά ήταν

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